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Ganja proven to be good for the bones

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ganja-use.jpgCannabis-marijuana, hashish-was used as a go-to medical remedy by societies around the world for centuries. But the therapeutic use of marijuana was banned in most countries in the 1930s and '40s due to a growing awareness of the dangers of addiction. The significant medical benefits of marijuana in alleviating symptoms of such diseases as Parkinson's, cancer, and multiple sclerosis have only recently been reinvestigated.

A new study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research by Tel Aviv University and Hebrew University researchers explores another promising new medical application for marijuana. According to the research, the administration of the non-psychotropic component cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) significantly helps heal bone fractures. The study, conducted on rats with mid-femoral fractures, found that CBD-even when isolated from tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of cannabis-markedly enhanced the healing process of the femora after just eight weeks.

The research was led jointly by Dr. Yankel Gabet of the Bone Research Laboratory at the Department of Anatomy and Anthropology at TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine and the late Prof. Itai Bab of Hebrew University's Bone Laboratory.

Undeniable clinical potential

The same team, in earlier research, discovered that cannabinoid receptors within our bodies stimulated bone formation and inhibited bone loss. This paves the way for the future use of cannabinoid drugs to combat osteoporosis and other bone-related diseases.

"The clinical potential of cannabinoid-related compounds is simply undeniable at this point," said Dr. Gabet. "While there is still a lot of work to be done to develop appropriate therapies, it is clear that it is possible to detach a clinical therapy objective from the psychoactivity of cannabis. CBD, the principal agent in our study, is primarily anti-inflammatory and has no psychoactivity."

According to Dr. Gabet, our bodies are equipped with a cannabinoid system, which regulates both vital and non-vital systems. "We only respond to cannabis because we are built with intrinsic compounds and receptors that can also be activated by compounds in the cannabis plant," he said. The researchers found that the skeleton itself is regulated by cannabinoids. Even the addition of a non-psychogenic compound acting outside of the brain can affect the skeleton.





Sorreal Recipe

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 JAMAICAN SORREL RECIPE

Ingredients: dried sorrel, dried ginger, sugar, allspice

Recipe:
1/8 tea spoon ground allspice (pimento) or about 12 whole allspice (optional)
6 oz dried sorrel
2 rounded table spoon dry ginger
8 cups water
2.5 cups water for re-draft
1.5 cups white sugar

Yields 8.5 cups of drink

1. Spread the sorrel out on aluminum foil or a white cloth which will make it easy to spot and remove any debris or unfit sorrel pieces.

2. After you have cleaned the sorrel pour it into a large cooking pot with 8 cups of water. Add the the two rounded tablespoons of ginger.

3. Boil the mixture for10 minutes after it begins to boil. Remove immediately and pour through a strainer into a suitable container.

4. Return the remains from the straner and return to the cooking pot and add 2.5 cups of water. Bring to a rapid boil again and remove after 10 minutes.

5. Strain the mixture and discard the residue.

6. Sweeten with 1.5 cups of white sugar or to taste.

7. Cool then serve over ice. Refrigerate the remainder. 

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2011 Caribbean HIV Conference November 18 - 21

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The Red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with...




Nassau, The Bahamas: The 2011 Caribbean HIV Conference: Strengthening Evidence To Achieve Sustainable Action will sharpen the focus on HIV in the Caribbean, the region with the world's second highest adult HIV prevalence. In 2008, approximately 240,000 people in the region were living with HIV, 20,000 new infections occurred, and 12,000 deaths resulted from AIDS-related illnesses (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Caribbean Factsheet: Latest epidemiological trends, 2009). Over the course of November 18-21, 2011, a wide range of Caribbean HIV stakeholders will assemble again to build on earlier successes and to demonstrate the synergistic results of regional cooperation and collaboration. The conference is expected to attract 2,000-2,500 participants and will highlight scientific research findings, implementation lessons learned, skills-building tools, and networking opportunities. The audience for the conference includes individuals living or working in the Caribbean, such as: people living with HIV members of vulnerable groups researchers and clinicians allied health care professionals caregivers patient advocates advocates for social justice and health parity members of community- and faith-based organizations regional and international governmental representatives policy analysts and decisionmakers civil society and regional media representatives The conference is sponsored by the Government of The Commonwealth of The Bahamas and the University of Puerto Rico, and conference co-chairs are Professor Daisy M. Gely, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico; Dr. Perry Gomez, Director, Bahamian National AIDS Programme, Princess Margaret Hospital; and Dr. Jack Whitescarver, NIH Associate Director for AIDS Research and Director, Office of AIDS Research, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
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Tips for Better Sex

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Can you remember the last time you couldn't wait to get home and shimmy between the sheets? Was it last week, last month? Last... year? We get it: Sometimes it's easier to give into your excuses -- I'm too tired, let's just do it this weekend, it doesn't even feel that great to begin with. But we don't need to tell you that sex is essential for a healthy marriage -- and also a healthy you. Research shows that a happy sex life can stamp out stress, reduce heart disease risk, and even improve immunity. But enough of the non-sexy talk. Try just one of these libido-lifting tricks today. You can thank us later.

1. Take a lunchtime stroll

Research shows that the more fit you are, the more sex you'll crave. In a study of women ages 45 to 55, sexual satisfaction correlated directly to fitness. "The less exercise they got, the lower their desire and sexual satisfaction," says study author Judith R. Gerber, PhD, a psychologist at the University of Vermont College of Medicine.

2. Book a rubdown

A pampering massage not only relieves stress... but "the skin-on-skin contact stimulates the sex hormone oxytocin," says Ian Kerner, PhD, author of "She Comes First."

"The more oxytocin released, the more desire a woman will feel."

3. Read something hot

Skip the evening news and flip through a sexy novel instead.

Erotic literature "can quickly jump-start arousal," says Carol Queen, PhD, a sexologist who works at Good Vibrations, a female-owned sex shop in San Francisco. She recommends the Herotica series, written by women, and The Diary of Anais Nin.

"Perfect for anyone who's not ready to get into bold four-letter words," says Queen.

4. Get really relaxed

Just a few meditation sessions can jack up your sex drive and speed arousal.

Researchers at Canada's University of British Columbia and Israel's Hadassah University Hospital measured reactions among 24 women watching an erotic film, then again after the subjects had attended three mindfulness meditation courses. Watching the same movie, the women were markedly more turned on than during the first viewing. "Mindfulness can directly change brain processing and allow women to experience arousal more acutely," says study co-author Lori Brotto, PhD.

 

5. Pop a multi

Too tired to feel sexy? It may be a diet deficiency.

Two overlooked nutrients may be to blame for sex-derailing exhaustion. "Low folate levels can make you feel tired, with no energy for sex," says Martha Morris, PhD, a Tufts University researcher; national surveys show that many women aren't getting enough of this B vitamin. And low iron can deplete brain neurotransmitters, which can lead to lethargy, says Swiss researcher Bernard Favrat, MD. The fix for both problems: a daily multivitamin with 100% of the DV for iron (18 mg) and folate (400 mcg).

6. Break a sweat beforehand

Exercise primes your body to get in the mood.

For some people, exercising too close to bedtime makes it hard for them to sleep. Take advantage of that found energy. "After 35 to 40 minutes of moderate exercise, everything in your body is going right," says Janet Hyde, PhD, a professor of psychology and women's studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Your blood is circulating, your nervous system is firing, so scheduling sex right after you exercise makes for good sex."

 

7. Smell your way sexy

These surprising scents will move you from the kitchen to the bedroom.

Cucumber, licorice, and baby powder have been shown to turn women on, increasing vaginal blood flow by 13 percent. Pumpkin pie and lavender increase blood flow by 11 percent. Try this: To cap a romantic dinner, serve pumpkin pie and keep a cucumber-scented sachet next to your pillow.

8. Ask about those little blue pills

The same meds that put your partner in the mood may also give your sex drive a lift Pills like Viagra increase blood flow to the genital area -- something women need for arousal just as much as men do. Though the FDA hasn't approved the pill for women, doctors can prescribe it off-label. Ask your healthcare provider if these meds might help you too.

9. Check your medicine cabinet

Any antidepressants in there? They could be stealing your orgasm. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of drugs that includes Prozac and Zoloft, "are probably the number one cause of anorgasmia [inability to have an orgasm]," says Andrew Goldstein, MD, of the Sexual Wellness Center in Annapolis, MD. They short-circuit your pleasure center by decreasing levels of the brain chemical dopamine (one of the sexual triumvirate, along with estrogen and testosterone).

10. Patch it up

If your sex drive has cooled down -- because of hormone abnormalities or surgery -- a testosterone patch may help rekindle your fire.


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There has been an outbreak of Chicken Pox at the Constant Spring Police lock up in St. Andrew.

Officials of the Public Health Department ordered a quarantine of the lock up, after five prisoners were diagnosed with the virus on Wednesday.

The lock up has been placed under quarantine for the next two weeks.

The Police High Command has ordered that no new prisoners should be taken to the lock up and those currently there should remain until the quarantine is lifted.

The High Command has ordered that the prisoners with the virus be isolated and that protective gear be provided for police personnel who work in the cells.

Among the 80 prisoners being housed in the lock-up is Garnett Reid, Jamaica Labour Party caretaker.

Chicken Pox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with the varicella zoster virus.

It usually starts as a vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head, which becomes itchy with raw pock marks that normally heal without scarring for some persons.

 





Doctors discover the Achilles heel of HIV

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lab_testings_edit.jpgDoctors of the University of Texas Medical School in Houston claim to have found an "innovative way to kill the (HIV) virus."

Drs. Sudhir Paul and Miguel Escobar say that they are not talking about suppressing HIV, but destroying it permanently.

Dr. Paul said that they have "...discovered the weak spot of HIV," - a key protein in HIV's structure which does not mutate. He calls it the Achilles heel, which they will attack using a treatment called abzyme.

The theory that this treatment could be used to control the disease for people with HIV and prevent infection for those at risk has already passed lab and animal testing. However, extensive funding is required to launch the human trials as clinical testing is expensive.

Dr. Paul calls his theory "...the holy grail of HIV research..."





The Caribbean fighting AIDS

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unaids_logo_edit.jpgThe Caribbean Launch of the UNAIDS Global 2008 report revealed that last year an estimated 23,000 - 270,000 persons were living with HIV, while an estimated 20,000 - 25,000 were newly infected, while 14,000 have died of illnesses related to AIDS. However, the spread of the illness has stabilized, while the numbers have declined in a few urban areas. This is most evident in the Dominican Republic and Haiti where the epidemic is most rampant. An estimated 30,000 people with HIV have received antiretroviral treatment, which is a 50 percent increase since 2006.

Edwin Carrington, Secretary General of CARICOM, said that the Caribbean is the only region in the world which has built strong partnerships against the epidemic, in the form of Pan Caribbean Partnerships against HIV/AIDS (PANCAP).

AIDS still remains one of the leading sources of death among the 25 - 44 age group in the Caribbean, but with continued scaling of the antiretroviral treatment, the number of persons with HIV progressing to AIDS could be reduced.

UNAIDS said that the main cause of HIV transmission in the Caribbean remains unprotected heterosexual sex, but "unprotected sex between men is also a significant factor..."





News Brief

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aids_logo.jpgFlorida HIV/AIDS Advocacy Groups, Health Departments To Increase HIV Awareness Among Minorities Ahead of National HIV Testing Day.

HIV/AIDS advocacy groups and health departments in Florida are planning several events aimed at increasing awareness about HIV among minorities ahead of National HIV Testing Day, which is scheduled for Friday, the Naples Daily News reports.

According to the Daily News, Florida in 2006 reported the third-highest AIDS rate for blacks and fourth-highest rate for Hispanics nationwide, as well as the highest rate for whites. Amalia Zamot, regional minority HIV/AIDS coordinator for the Florida Department of Health, said that there is a "general disproportion" in HIV/AIDS rates among white and minority communities in the area. She added that the disparity is especially true for the area's black community, in which one in every 72 people is living with HIV/AIDS.





Can you tell by appearance if someone is HIV Positive?

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By: Janice Dayle

Common_artiste.jpgAre you sick of hearing about especially youth who end up HIV positive because "They had no clue?" Are you lyrically fit and ready for a challenge?

Then get out your writing tools and carve out a good 60 second rhyme to express the importance of getting tested for HIV. Hip-hop Grammy winning artist Common has collaborated with It's Your (Sex) Life, a public information partnership between the Kaiser Family Foundation and MTV, and the Common Ground Foundation, with support from Youth Speaks, to launch: "A Minute," a new lyrics contest to encourage young people to get tested for HIV.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HIV screening for all adults and adolescents (ages 13-64) in the United States. Through this new joint initiative, Common, MTV and Kaiser are encouraging young people to take a minute to inform themselves and others about HIV testing.

CDC estimates that in the United States 1 in 4 people do not know that they are HIV positive.





Uniting the world against AIDS

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aids_logo.jpgUNAIDS – The joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS & WHO - The World Health Organization - issued the following statement following a Swiss medical journal bulletin that negates the high possibility of HIV transmission under certain circumstances. YardFlex will follow up with more on the Swiss research and their controversial announcement.

Antiretroviral therapy and sexual transmission of HIV

Geneva, 1 February 2008 - Following the recent publication of an article on Antiretroviral Treatment (medicines taken by people living with HIV that can reduce the amount of the virus in the blood to the point that the virus becomes undetectable) and sexual transmission of HIV in the Swiss medical journal 'Bulletin des médecins suisses', UNAIDS and WHO reiterate the importance of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention including correct and consistent use of condoms.

The article, published by Switzerland's Federal AIDS Commission (La Commission fédérale pour les problèmes liés au Sida), states that seropositive (HIV Positive) individuals do not risk transmitting HIV to a seronegative (HIV Negative) partner under the following conditions:

The seropositive partner has to have had undetectable HIV in the blood for at least 6 months, there must be strict with adherence to his/her antiretroviral regimen, and he/she must be free of any other sexually transmitted infections.

In the article the Commission states that although available medical and biological evidence does not rule out the possibility of HIV transmission they feel that there is nonetheless enough information to support its statement.





DIABETES...the facts - Part I

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By: Dr. S. Lawson MD and Dr. H. Boothe PharmD

diabetes_logo_slogan.jpgDiabetes mellitus is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education, to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. The disease is characterized by excess glucose in the blood that leads to excessive urination and results from inadequate production and or utilization of insulin.

• The different types of diabetes include Type 1, Type 2, Gestational (GDM), and Pre-diabetes.

• Diabetes not only complicates every other disease condition, it can precipitate other diseases.

• 171 million world-wide suffer from diabetes. One in 13 people in the USA have diabetes.

• In the year 2005 a total of 20.8 million have diabetes, of these 6.2 million are undiagnosed. 80% - 90% of the diagnosed are obese when diagnosed.

• It reduces life expectancy by 5 to 10 years.

• Diabetes is associated with obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and an increase in the elderly population.

• The Hispanic, African American and Aboriginal population (with high numbers of poor people with poor diets and inadequate medical attention) are at increased risk to develop diabetes than the rest of the population.

• It is the number 6 leading cause of death in the USA.

• Individuals with diabetes have a 2-4 times the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

• It is the leading cause of kidney failure, blindness, and non-traumatic amputation.

• Prediabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and a compensatory increase in blood glucose (hyperinsulinemia).

Approximately 1.2 million are diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.These numbers will double by the year 2030.

• Type 1 diabetes (results from beta-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency, it is of autoimmune origin that occurs in the adolescence period of life, usually before the age of 30. Type 1 diabetes presents with sudden onset weight loss, fatigue, irritability and was previously called insulin dependent diabetes.

• Type 2 diabetes (results from a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance, and is caused by inadequate insulin production by the beta cells in the pancreas, defective insulin, or resistance to insulin function at the insulin cell receptors. When insulin binds to its receptor on cell membrane, it allows glucose to enter the cell (i.e. muscle, liver, and fat cells); this is like the key that opens the lock to let glucose into the cell. When glucose is unable to leave the circulation, the blood glucose level rises above optimum level resulting in organ damage.

• Insulin, glucagons, adiponectin, amylin are hormones involved in glucose regulation. Glucagon accelerates the conversion of glycogen in the liver (and promotes the formation of glucose from lactic acid and certain amino acids).

• Insulin stimulates the release of glucose from the liver into the blood. And counteracts the action of glucagons by transporting glucose into cells. Insulin promotes the formation of fatty acids, increases the storage of glycogen, protein synthesis and DNA replication. Amylin is a hormone that acts like insulin.

• Human growth hormone, neurotransmitters, and regulatory peptides also play a role in glucose metabolism.

• In obese individuals, there is abnormal insulin activity (insulin resistance) at the muscles insulin receptors (sites on the muscle cells where insulin acts to pull glucose out of the blood into the cells).

• Cells use glucose as energy and when you have reduced production of insulin or the insulin is not working right glucose increases in the blood. If the cells don’t receive adequate supply of energy this sends message to the brain that results in increased hunger, at the same time, the blood becomes hyperosmolar( too thick) and absorbs water from tissue, this results in dehydration and increased thirst.

• Excess blood glucose destroys the kidney's filtering capability which results in excessive glucose and protein in the urine causing increased urination.

• In type1 diabetes there is a total destruction of the insulin producing cells by antibodies (an autoimmune dysfunction).

• Viral infection of the pancreas is implicated in this destructive mechanism.

• Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires insulin. Without insulin the body has to get its energy from fats. This results in Diabetic keto Acidosis (DKA) which leads to metabolic abnormalities. Treatment is Intravenous insulin and glucose. Type 1 diabetes is a result of the complete absence of insulin production in the pancreas, of viral etiology, genetic factors, presence of ketones in the blood (ketoacidosis), sudden onset and usually presents before age 30. These individuals with Type 1 diabetes usually have lean body composition. The diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes is made by detecting of antibodies and C-peptides in the blood.

These individuals usually do not have a family history of diabetes.
• Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) frequently presents with poor wound healing, blurry vision, numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, recurring skin and gum infections, vaginal yeast infection, and urinary tract infection. Factors that predispose people to developing T2MD include obesity (waist to hip ratio) fetal malnutrition, gestational diabetes, children born prematurely, a positive family history of T2DM, cigarette smoking, hypothyroidism, trans fat, saturated fats, endothelial dysfunction, high levels of testosterones in women, decrease levels of sex hormones binding protein in men, HIV/AIDS.





Fibroids

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By: Dr. Steve Lawson

FibroidUterusRGB.jpg

Uterine fibroid (leiomyomas) are benign tumors of the uterus. These tumors result from abnormal growth of muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue in the endometrium, myometrium, and the ectometrium of the uterus. By the age of 50 years old the overall incidence of fibroids are 70-80% for women. Black women are four times more likely to develop fibroids than Caucasian women. They also have larger fibroids and develop fibroids at a younger age Fibroids can vary in size from being undetectable by human eyes to the size of a full term pregnancy.

The etiologies of fibroids are linked to hormonal imbalance, obesity,
xeno-estrrogen, heavy metal toxicity, infectious microorganisms, stress and high blood sugar level. Fibroids can cause complications such as menstrual problems, pelvic and lower back pain, constipation, urinary problems, hemorrhoids, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and miscarriages.

Signs and symptoms that presents with uterine fibroids include heavy
menstrual bleeding (menorrhagea), prolong menstrual bleeding
(metrorrhagea), bleeding between periods, period pain (dysmenorrhea),
urinary incontinence, urinary frequency, severe acute abdominal pain,
constipation, hemorrhoids, anemia, back pain and leg pain.

Fibroids can be categorized into three types which include submucosal, myometrial and subserosal. Submucosal fibroids are located in the lining of the uterine cavity. Myometrial fibroids are located in the muscular layers of the uterus. Subserosal fibroids are located on the outer surface of the uterus. Both the submucosal and the subserosal fibroids can form pedunculated (fibroids that hang from a stalk). Fibroids can be detected by using pelvic examination, ultrasound, hysterosonography, hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingography.

Women who have excessive amounts of estrogen and an insufficient amount of progesterone are more predisposed to developing uterine fibroids. Women with excessive body fat are in an estrogen dominant state because fat tissues act as an estrogen-producing organ similar to the ovaries and the adrenal gland.

Estrogen is a prolific hormone that stimulates DNA replication that in excess can stimulate the smooth muscle cells of the uterus to replicate excessively and cause the overgrowth of fibrous connective tissue resulting in fibroids. Insulin-like growth factor is an anabolic hormone that is implicated in the abnormal growth of the uterine muscles that form fibroids. Xeno-estrogens are pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, and other toxic substances that act similar to estrogen causing DNA dysfunction resulting in abnormal replication that causes fibroids.

The excessive growth of these fibroids can cause submucosal irregularity resulting in dysmenorrhea and miscarriages. Fibroids in the subserosal layer of the uterus can cause obstruction of the colon resulting in constipation and the formation of hemorrhoids (dilated veins located in the region of the anus). Pedunculated fibroids in the submucosal and subserosal layers can twist on themselves cutting off their blood supply and causing severe abdominal pain that may require surgery. Excessive menstrual bleeding due to fibroids can result in anemia and its associated complications.

Treatment includes hysterectomy, myomectomy, Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE), gonadatropin releasing hormones (GnRH) antagonists, androgens (danazol), and focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), and essential oils.





By: Dr. Carlton Fraser

aids_logo.jpgIn spite of the efforts to clarify the origins of HIV/AIDS and to develop therapeutic and management orders, the disease is still shrouded in gray - and some who are genuinely concerned about the devastating effect of HIV/AIDS choose to seek deep into the mysteries.

Boyd E. Graves a US lawyer in his expose "State Origin: The Evidence of Laboratory Birth of AIDS" in which he unfurls numerous historical data - illustrates the intense procedures that culminated in HIV's origins and existence and the subsequent devastation of the innocents as a later development to accomplish the intended ethnic depopulation.

The 'mycoplasma,' discussed in our earlier mentioned "Laboratory of Hygiene History" published May 17, 2007 - was by 1898 the element of proof that epidemics could be arranged.

Four years later the capability to classify certain diseases by their ethnic effect existed. By 1918, the influenza virus killed millions of unsuspecting individuals- it was a flu virus modified with (bird) mycoplasma for which human primates had no acquired immunity.

In 1921 lead eugenics philosopher Bertrand Russell, publicly supported the necessity for organized plagues against the Black population. Secret testing of Afro-Americans were being conducted in 1931 and AIDS was tested in sheep.

In 1948 mention was made of devising a scheme to address the issue of overpopulation in certain racial groups.

Graves further reveals that in 1949 the Visna virus was isolated by Dr. Bjorn Sigurdson – significantly it shared some unique DNA with the HIV (virus), and in 1951 the government conducted its first virus attack on Afro-Americans. In 1970 President Nixon signed the "Population Czar". Nixon’s (August 10th) National Security Memo is unequivocal in its suggested direction(s) for depopulation – Progress Report #8 (PR#8) is issued in 1971 giving the update on the special (AIDS) virus program. It coordinates over 6000 pages of experiments, 20,000 scientific papers in fifteen(15), 400-page progress reports. The Flow Chart is the 'Research Logic Flow' of an ultra-secret federal program entitled 'Special Virus'. "On page 2 of the 1971 progress report (PR#8), the secret program narrates that it is seeking to make a candidate human virus by converging a leukemia and a lymphoma." The original name of HIV/AIDS is Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus. The virus was later attached as complement/contaminant to vaccines and sent as smallpox (vaccine) to Africa and experimental hepatitis B (vaccine) to Manhattan, USA (homosexual epidemic batch #751).

Graves further elaborates showing that PR#8 (Progress Report #8) continues at 273-286 to show that AIDS was given to monkeys...since 1962 the United States and Dr. Robert Gallo had been injecting/inoculating monkeys and re-releasing them back into the wild. The HIV/AIDS complex produced becomes the issue for discussion between the Soviets and Dr. Gallo.

The "Special Virus" is the designer product of a century long hunt for a contagious cancer that will selectively kill. The need for the creation and deployment of AIDS et al is fully outlined in the US population control policy decisions including National Security Study Memorandum 200 (NSSM-200) 1974 drafted and presented by Henry Kissinger at the mega conference on population control held in Bucharest, Romania.





HIV-positive and still sexy

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aids_logo.jpg"You can have your sexuality...you don't have to lose it because you have HIV"

People tend to think that contracting HIV can spell the end of their sex lives, but HIV-positive Africans of all ages are now being urged to reclaim their sexuality and live healthy, normal lives.

"I got this [HIV] through sex, so [I thought] my sexuality was gone and I felt I needed to stop dressing attractively and wait to die," Florence Anam, 28, an information officer at the Kenya Network of Women with AIDS, told IRIN/PlusNews.

Anam said when she first revealed she was HIV-positive, many men avoided her, believing she was out to infect them; she herself had no interest in sex for several months after she was diagnosed. However, she has since discovered she can continue having and enjoying sex, despite being HIV-positive.

"My take on this is that you can have your sexuality ... you don't have to lose it because you have HIV, you just have to be responsible," she said, adding that sex "has to be good or I'm not having it".

At a recent workshop by the Africa Regional Sexuality Resource Centre (ARSRC), at its Sexuality Institute in Kenya's coastal city of Mombasa, participants heard that there was a need to rethink sexuality in the context of disease, particularly chronic infections such as HIV.

"HIV as a condition is highly moralised; people face stigma because they are perceived by society to have been sexually immoral," said Richmond Tiemoko, director of ARSRC.

"Women are particularly affected by this type of stigma because they are expected to be the keepers of society's morality, so contracting HIV is seen as a great failure on their part." He said it was important that people living with HIV recognised and claimed their right to sexuality and sexual intercourse.





HIV Scare following Doctor's Misuse of needles

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aids_logo.jpgNew York state health officials notified 628 former patients of a Nassau County anesthesiologist that they need to seek testing for HIV, Hepatitis and other blood borne diseases, because between 2000 and 2005 the medical practitioner in question reused syringes when injecting patients with more than one drug, New York Times reports.

Investigations into the practice of anesthesiologist Harvey Finkelstein of Plainview, N.Y. began in 2005 after two of his patients contracted hepatitis C. According to the Times, Finkelstein would use a new syringe for each patient. However, Finkelstein told investigators that in 2000 he began using the same syringe to draw medicine from more than one vial when giving a patient more than one type of drug by injection, which caused the potential contamination of multidose vials.

The blood of a patient with one virus could, by backing up through the needle and entering the vials, be transmitted to another person when that vial of medicine was reused.

Investigators in 2005 notified 98 of Finkelstein's patients who had received epidural injections in the three weeks before, during and after his two patients were infected, that they should seek testing for blood borne diseases. Of the 84 who were tested, no other cases of infection were traced to Finkelstein. The state then expanded its investigation to examine records from 2000 to 2005. New York Health Commissioner Richard Daines in a statement released this week said that "the department identified all 628 patients who had received injections between Jan. 1, 2000, and Jan. 15, 2005, after a thorough review of medical records at all sites where this physician practiced" (Vitello/Kershaw, New York Times, 11/16).





Kids & HIV/AIDS; Don't Hate – EDUCATE

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jenna.jpgJenna Bush, daughter of the president of the United States, who has written a book chronicling the life of a young Latin American girl born HIV positive; also spoke briefly about the discrimination facing children living with HIV/AIDS in Jamaica. Inspired to write the book, entitled "Anna's Story; A Journey of Hope," following a UNICEF internship in Latin America and the Caribbean, it was the Jamaican response to HIV that seemed harshest, in all of the young Bush’s analogies.

Bush, 25, spoke of HIV positive children in Jamaica who told her they would never disclose their HIV status to anyone in their neighbourhood. The children's reason was a very real fear that someone in their village would stone them to death, she said. This speaks to the single most crippling aspect of HIV/AIDS; that is Stigma and Discrimination.

Talking about children with HIV/AIDS Jenna's book documents the life stories of the kids she encountered during her study/work experience. At a book signing session recently Jenna encouraged people to become mentors, teachers, tutors and volunteers for affected children in need of help and to educate themselves about the crucial issues facing children like, HIV/AIDS, sexual abuse and other like issues, the Tampa Tribune reported.





By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor-lawson.jpgonorrhea ( Neisseria Gonorrhea) is the second most common bacterial infectious disease in the United States. Gonorrhea and Chlamydia usually walk hand in hand. Approximately 650,000 reported cases occur annually. However, it is estimated that if under-diagnosed and unreported cases were accounted for, the actual infection rate would be twice this number.

The highest occurrences of Gonorrhea infections are among females between ages 15 to 19 and highest rates among males are between ages 20 to 24. It is more common among younger females because the vaginal epithelium is thinner.

This infection can be contracted through, vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Gonorrhea can infect the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes of women and the urethra, mouth, throat, and rectum of both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common complication of gonorrhea in women and epididymitis (infection of the spermatic duct) in men can lead to sterility. Arthritic joint pain, meningitis (infection of the tissue that covers the brain) and heart disease (endocarditis) are rare complications of gonorrhea infection.
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Stages, testing and current global infection rates
Grab a dictionary and read slowly, this clearly explains the deadly Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV

By: Dr. Carlton Fraser

Stop-AIDS-Hand.jpgThe CDC (Centers for Disease Control) in the United States, uses classification that divides the progress of HIV infection in adults into three clinical stages or categories.

Category A........At this stage the infection may be asymptomatic or cause persistent swollen lymph nodes. These are often those located on the underarm.

Category B.........This stage is characterized by persistent infections by the yeast Candida albicans oar thrush, which can appear in the mouth, throat or vagina. Often conditions may include shingles, persistent diarrhea, fever and certain cancerous and precancerous conditions of the cervix.

Category C ............ This stage is clinical AIDS. Important AIDS indicator conditions are Candida albicans or thrush, infections of the oesophagus, bronchi, and lungs; cytomegalovirus eye infections; tuberculosis, pnemocystis carinii, taxoplasmosis of the brain and Kaposi sarcoma.

The CDC also classifies the progress of HIV infections based on T-Cell populations or amounts, which provide guidelines for the administration of certain medications. The normal T-Cell count of a healthy individual is 800-1000 CD4 T-Cells. A count below 200 CD4 T-Cells is considered diagnostic for AIDS and medication is recommended at this stage. HIV can take almost 10 years to culminate into AIDS.





HIV/ AIDS FACTS...and yes...you need to know

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Grab a dictionary and read slowly, this clearly explains the deadly Human Immunodeficiency Virus

By: Dr. Carlton Fraser

aids_front_big.jpgThe Virus: Its History and Definition
The history of viruses probably began about 1886 when the Dutch chemist Adolf Mayer revealed that it was possible to transfer the tobacco mosaic disease from an affected plant to a healthy plant. In the past (1882) he had described the phenomenon as "a soluble, possible enzyme-like contagium" but by 1886 he had altered his opinion and reported that it is "bacterial, but that the infectious forms have not yet been isolated, nor are their forms of life known..."

Subsequently (1892) the Russian bacteriologist Dmitri Ivanovsky failed in his attempts to isolate the infectious agent by use of filtering and it was left to Dutch botanist Martinus Beijerink to voice the observation that the behavior, of the seemingly elusive causative agent, was different from that of bacteria. He fittingly coined the definition 'contagium vivum fluidum' or 'virus(es)' - the Latin for poison.

In and about 1935 two interesting events occurred that contributed immensely to our clinical understanding of virology. One was the American chemist Wendel M. Stanley isolating the tobacco mosaic virus and the other was the invention of an electron microscope which made viruses visible for the first time.
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By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor-lawson.jpgChlamydia is the most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States causing approximately 4 million infections annually. Today, teenage girls have the highest rates of Chlamydia infection worldwide. Studies conducted show that 1 in 9 women are infected with Chlamydia with higher prevalence between the ages 16-24. Approximately 90 million people are infected worldwide. Fifty percent of the men and seventy five percent of women infected with Chlamydia are asymptomatic (present without symptoms).

Transmitted during oral, vaginal and anal sex, through the blood during pregnancy as well as during vaginal delivery of a newborn, Chlamydia is a curable sexually transmitted infection (STI). Chlamydia trachomatis can be transmitted via aerosolize vapors (similar to tuberculosis). This type of infection does not cause obvious clinical infection but contributes to other severe medical complications such as intractable pain syndrome, heart disease, circulatory disturbances, diabetes, reactive arthritis and cancer.
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Herpes Simplex Virus

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By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor-lawson.jpgHerpes Simplex Viruses (HSVs) are ubiquitous organisms whose antibodies can be detected in one fifth of the US population. Worldwide prevalence of HSV has increased significantly in recent decades. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are two types of this virus.

Transmission
HSV-1 infections are transmitted primarily by contact with infected saliva and airborne droplets and usually affect the surface area of the lip, nose, the oral mucosa and tonsils. Congenital (intrauterine acquired) infection with HSV-1 is rare. HSV-1 invades the trigeminal nerves (the cranial nerve the controls the most of the facial and oral region) where they lie dormant until they are reactivated by a stressor (i.e. temperature).





HIV means Help I'm Vulnerable

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Testimonial by: JD

jd_bath-hiv-photo-patient-beyonce-jay-z.jpgI want to express my thoughts on HIV/AIDS and my experiences to all who will listen since HIV to me means Help I'm Vulnerable. This is a statement without boundaries, similar to the virus that can cause this crippling disease - AIDS. HIV does not alert anyone to the fact that it is checking in. Once in your blood stream, it tends to lay quietly at first for a very long time, only coming alive when the opportunity to slip into another red wet human vein arrives. I heard about this pandemic for years, but did not listen…after all, in my mind, this information did not apply to me.

I had no idea...until the day my husband died. When I met him he looked regular - well not exactly regular, he was extraordinarily fine. Masculine - muscular - six pack - smooth and gorgeous complexion - flawless skin throughout - and to top it off he was agile and really intelligent.





Breast Cancer - over 40,000 deaths occur annually

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By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor.jpgOne in eight women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that over 200,000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed annually. It makes breast cancer the most common cancer in women. It is estimated that over 40,000 deaths from breast cancer occur annually in the Unites States. This makes breast cancer the second most common cause of death in women ages 20-59.

The precise etiology is unknown. Risk factors include genetics, endocrine, and environmental/lifestyle. Family history may be the most significant factor for the development of breast cancer. Women whose mothers develop breast cancer less than sixty years old has twice the relative risk (risk of developing breast cancer in comparison to the general population). If a woman has two first degree relatives (mother/sister) with breast cancer, the relative risk increases four times. Women with atypical hyperplasia (benign breast disease) have a relative risk of three times. Women with lobular carcinoma In Situ (CIS) have a relative risk of seven times.





By: Dr. S Lawson

dave.jpgThe Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). HPV is at epidemic proportions in the united States. There is an 80% life time risk of acquiring this infection. Twenty million people in the United States alone are infected with HPV but are unaware of it. Cervical cancer is the 2nd most common cause of cancer world wide. HPV affects primarily the cervix, but the penis, anus, and the mouth can be infected.

Predisposing risk factors include smoking, oral contraceptive pills, pregnancy (low immunity), inadequate nutrition, early age of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, weakened immune system (HIV positive, chemotherapy) and other STDs i.e. Chlamydia. Transmission requires skin to skin contact. Some strains of HPV predispose women to develop cervical cancer and some strains have predisposing factors for warts. HPV-DNA test is available to detect the presence of HPV infection in women. The Pap (Papanicolaou) test is a screening test that will identify precancerous cells of the cervix so that further diagnostic and therapeutic work up can be implemented to prevent the development of cervical cancer. Gardasil is a vaccine, approved by the FDA, for young girls and young women age 9-26 that provides substantial protection against the most common strains of HPV.





By Dr. Carlton Fraser

InsideColonCancer_medical.jpgThe power to reduce our risks of developing colon cancer is in our hands. Here are some steps to lowering your risk of colorectal cancer:

* Regular screening (colorectal) test from age 50 onwards are recommended.
* Eat a healthy diet high in fiber and low in fat; eat most colorful fresh fruit and vegetables (which may contain chemopreventive agents; vitamins, minerals and fibers). Include, vegetables (prepared leafy green veggies); cruciferous vegetables e.g. okra (OKRA has insoluble fiber that helps keep the intestinal tract healthy decreasing risk of colon cancer) broccoli and Brussels sprouts are especially important; whole grains from breads, cereals (wheat bran supplements may help inhibit polyp formation), nuts and beans. Also a source of calcium with low fat milk. Fibers in natural foods (fruits and vegetables) are more effective for cancer prevention. Vegetable fat is not a risk factor. Research suggests that up to 35 percent of cancers are related to poor diet.





Inside Colon Cancer - Part 1 of Part two

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By Dr. Carlton Fraser

ColonCancer.jpgThe word Cancer has many origins; Middle English from Old English 'cancer', from the Old French 'cancre', both from Latin 'cancer' meaning crab or malignant disease. Cancer essentially defines abnormal cellular regeneration. It results from genetic change or destruction of the chromosomal material of the cell i.e. from mutation.

Every normal cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes which consist of the double spiral DNA molecule; that dictates the genetic characteristics in the chromosomes inherited. Within the chromosomes are 'millions' of genes that determine our growth, function and behaviour patterns.

Cells influenced by mutation disregard the clinically defined limits of growth or regeneration, exhibiting bizarre cellular behaviour. The hallmarks of (cellular) regeneration, disciplined growth/duplication and spatial limitation, are ignored. The original genetic code is no longer the determining factor for cellular development and cellular 'maturity' is now more influenced by other insidious factors. All human (cellular) elements are susceptible and the familiar tumor is a usual representation of pathological growth.
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2011 Caribbean HIV Conference November 18 - 21

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The Red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with...




Nassau, The Bahamas: The 2011 Caribbean HIV Conference: Strengthening Evidence To Achieve Sustainable Action will sharpen the focus on HIV in the Caribbean, the region with the world's second highest adult HIV prevalence. In 2008, approximately 240,000 people in the region were living with HIV, 20,000 new infections occurred, and 12,000 deaths resulted from AIDS-related illnesses (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Caribbean Factsheet: Latest epidemiological trends, 2009). Over the course of November 18-21, 2011, a wide range of Caribbean HIV stakeholders will assemble again to build on earlier successes and to demonstrate the synergistic results of regional cooperation and collaboration. The conference is expected to attract 2,000-2,500 participants and will highlight scientific research findings, implementation lessons learned, skills-building tools, and networking opportunities. The audience for the conference includes individuals living or working in the Caribbean, such as: people living with HIV members of vulnerable groups researchers and clinicians allied health care professionals caregivers patient advocates advocates for social justice and health parity members of community- and faith-based organizations regional and international governmental representatives policy analysts and decisionmakers civil society and regional media representatives The conference is sponsored by the Government of The Commonwealth of The Bahamas and the University of Puerto Rico, and conference co-chairs are Professor Daisy M. Gely, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico; Dr. Perry Gomez, Director, Bahamian National AIDS Programme, Princess Margaret Hospital; and Dr. Jack Whitescarver, NIH Associate Director for AIDS Research and Director, Office of AIDS Research, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
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Tips for Better Sex

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Can you remember the last time you couldn't wait to get home and shimmy between the sheets? Was it last week, last month? Last... year? We get it: Sometimes it's easier to give into your excuses -- I'm too tired, let's just do it this weekend, it doesn't even feel that great to begin with. But we don't need to tell you that sex is essential for a healthy marriage -- and also a healthy you. Research shows that a happy sex life can stamp out stress, reduce heart disease risk, and even improve immunity. But enough of the non-sexy talk. Try just one of these libido-lifting tricks today. You can thank us later.

1. Take a lunchtime stroll

Research shows that the more fit you are, the more sex you'll crave. In a study of women ages 45 to 55, sexual satisfaction correlated directly to fitness. "The less exercise they got, the lower their desire and sexual satisfaction," says study author Judith R. Gerber, PhD, a psychologist at the University of Vermont College of Medicine.

2. Book a rubdown

A pampering massage not only relieves stress... but "the skin-on-skin contact stimulates the sex hormone oxytocin," says Ian Kerner, PhD, author of "She Comes First."

"The more oxytocin released, the more desire a woman will feel."

3. Read something hot

Skip the evening news and flip through a sexy novel instead.

Erotic literature "can quickly jump-start arousal," says Carol Queen, PhD, a sexologist who works at Good Vibrations, a female-owned sex shop in San Francisco. She recommends the Herotica series, written by women, and The Diary of Anais Nin.

"Perfect for anyone who's not ready to get into bold four-letter words," says Queen.

4. Get really relaxed

Just a few meditation sessions can jack up your sex drive and speed arousal.

Researchers at Canada's University of British Columbia and Israel's Hadassah University Hospital measured reactions among 24 women watching an erotic film, then again after the subjects had attended three mindfulness meditation courses. Watching the same movie, the women were markedly more turned on than during the first viewing. "Mindfulness can directly change brain processing and allow women to experience arousal more acutely," says study co-author Lori Brotto, PhD.

 

5. Pop a multi

Too tired to feel sexy? It may be a diet deficiency.

Two overlooked nutrients may be to blame for sex-derailing exhaustion. "Low folate levels can make you feel tired, with no energy for sex," says Martha Morris, PhD, a Tufts University researcher; national surveys show that many women aren't getting enough of this B vitamin. And low iron can deplete brain neurotransmitters, which can lead to lethargy, says Swiss researcher Bernard Favrat, MD. The fix for both problems: a daily multivitamin with 100% of the DV for iron (18 mg) and folate (400 mcg).

6. Break a sweat beforehand

Exercise primes your body to get in the mood.

For some people, exercising too close to bedtime makes it hard for them to sleep. Take advantage of that found energy. "After 35 to 40 minutes of moderate exercise, everything in your body is going right," says Janet Hyde, PhD, a professor of psychology and women's studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Your blood is circulating, your nervous system is firing, so scheduling sex right after you exercise makes for good sex."

 

7. Smell your way sexy

These surprising scents will move you from the kitchen to the bedroom.

Cucumber, licorice, and baby powder have been shown to turn women on, increasing vaginal blood flow by 13 percent. Pumpkin pie and lavender increase blood flow by 11 percent. Try this: To cap a romantic dinner, serve pumpkin pie and keep a cucumber-scented sachet next to your pillow.

8. Ask about those little blue pills

The same meds that put your partner in the mood may also give your sex drive a lift Pills like Viagra increase blood flow to the genital area -- something women need for arousal just as much as men do. Though the FDA hasn't approved the pill for women, doctors can prescribe it off-label. Ask your healthcare provider if these meds might help you too.

9. Check your medicine cabinet

Any antidepressants in there? They could be stealing your orgasm. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of drugs that includes Prozac and Zoloft, "are probably the number one cause of anorgasmia [inability to have an orgasm]," says Andrew Goldstein, MD, of the Sexual Wellness Center in Annapolis, MD. They short-circuit your pleasure center by decreasing levels of the brain chemical dopamine (one of the sexual triumvirate, along with estrogen and testosterone).

10. Patch it up

If your sex drive has cooled down -- because of hormone abnormalities or surgery -- a testosterone patch may help rekindle your fire.


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There has been an outbreak of Chicken Pox at the Constant Spring Police lock up in St. Andrew.

Officials of the Public Health Department ordered a quarantine of the lock up, after five prisoners were diagnosed with the virus on Wednesday.

The lock up has been placed under quarantine for the next two weeks.

The Police High Command has ordered that no new prisoners should be taken to the lock up and those currently there should remain until the quarantine is lifted.

The High Command has ordered that the prisoners with the virus be isolated and that protective gear be provided for police personnel who work in the cells.

Among the 80 prisoners being housed in the lock-up is Garnett Reid, Jamaica Labour Party caretaker.

Chicken Pox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with the varicella zoster virus.

It usually starts as a vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head, which becomes itchy with raw pock marks that normally heal without scarring for some persons.

 





Doctors discover the Achilles heel of HIV

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lab_testings_edit.jpgDoctors of the University of Texas Medical School in Houston claim to have found an "innovative way to kill the (HIV) virus."

Drs. Sudhir Paul and Miguel Escobar say that they are not talking about suppressing HIV, but destroying it permanently.

Dr. Paul said that they have "...discovered the weak spot of HIV," - a key protein in HIV's structure which does not mutate. He calls it the Achilles heel, which they will attack using a treatment called abzyme.

The theory that this treatment could be used to control the disease for people with HIV and prevent infection for those at risk has already passed lab and animal testing. However, extensive funding is required to launch the human trials as clinical testing is expensive.

Dr. Paul calls his theory "...the holy grail of HIV research..."





The Caribbean fighting AIDS

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unaids_logo_edit.jpgThe Caribbean Launch of the UNAIDS Global 2008 report revealed that last year an estimated 23,000 - 270,000 persons were living with HIV, while an estimated 20,000 - 25,000 were newly infected, while 14,000 have died of illnesses related to AIDS. However, the spread of the illness has stabilized, while the numbers have declined in a few urban areas. This is most evident in the Dominican Republic and Haiti where the epidemic is most rampant. An estimated 30,000 people with HIV have received antiretroviral treatment, which is a 50 percent increase since 2006.

Edwin Carrington, Secretary General of CARICOM, said that the Caribbean is the only region in the world which has built strong partnerships against the epidemic, in the form of Pan Caribbean Partnerships against HIV/AIDS (PANCAP).

AIDS still remains one of the leading sources of death among the 25 - 44 age group in the Caribbean, but with continued scaling of the antiretroviral treatment, the number of persons with HIV progressing to AIDS could be reduced.

UNAIDS said that the main cause of HIV transmission in the Caribbean remains unprotected heterosexual sex, but "unprotected sex between men is also a significant factor..."





News Brief

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aids_logo.jpgFlorida HIV/AIDS Advocacy Groups, Health Departments To Increase HIV Awareness Among Minorities Ahead of National HIV Testing Day.

HIV/AIDS advocacy groups and health departments in Florida are planning several events aimed at increasing awareness about HIV among minorities ahead of National HIV Testing Day, which is scheduled for Friday, the Naples Daily News reports.

According to the Daily News, Florida in 2006 reported the third-highest AIDS rate for blacks and fourth-highest rate for Hispanics nationwide, as well as the highest rate for whites. Amalia Zamot, regional minority HIV/AIDS coordinator for the Florida Department of Health, said that there is a "general disproportion" in HIV/AIDS rates among white and minority communities in the area. She added that the disparity is especially true for the area's black community, in which one in every 72 people is living with HIV/AIDS.





Can you tell by appearance if someone is HIV Positive?

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By: Janice Dayle

Common_artiste.jpgAre you sick of hearing about especially youth who end up HIV positive because "They had no clue?" Are you lyrically fit and ready for a challenge?

Then get out your writing tools and carve out a good 60 second rhyme to express the importance of getting tested for HIV. Hip-hop Grammy winning artist Common has collaborated with It's Your (Sex) Life, a public information partnership between the Kaiser Family Foundation and MTV, and the Common Ground Foundation, with support from Youth Speaks, to launch: "A Minute," a new lyrics contest to encourage young people to get tested for HIV.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HIV screening for all adults and adolescents (ages 13-64) in the United States. Through this new joint initiative, Common, MTV and Kaiser are encouraging young people to take a minute to inform themselves and others about HIV testing.

CDC estimates that in the United States 1 in 4 people do not know that they are HIV positive.





Uniting the world against AIDS

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aids_logo.jpgUNAIDS – The joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS & WHO - The World Health Organization - issued the following statement following a Swiss medical journal bulletin that negates the high possibility of HIV transmission under certain circumstances. YardFlex will follow up with more on the Swiss research and their controversial announcement.

Antiretroviral therapy and sexual transmission of HIV

Geneva, 1 February 2008 - Following the recent publication of an article on Antiretroviral Treatment (medicines taken by people living with HIV that can reduce the amount of the virus in the blood to the point that the virus becomes undetectable) and sexual transmission of HIV in the Swiss medical journal 'Bulletin des médecins suisses', UNAIDS and WHO reiterate the importance of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention including correct and consistent use of condoms.

The article, published by Switzerland's Federal AIDS Commission (La Commission fédérale pour les problèmes liés au Sida), states that seropositive (HIV Positive) individuals do not risk transmitting HIV to a seronegative (HIV Negative) partner under the following conditions:

The seropositive partner has to have had undetectable HIV in the blood for at least 6 months, there must be strict with adherence to his/her antiretroviral regimen, and he/she must be free of any other sexually transmitted infections.

In the article the Commission states that although available medical and biological evidence does not rule out the possibility of HIV transmission they feel that there is nonetheless enough information to support its statement.





DIABETES...the facts - Part I

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By: Dr. S. Lawson MD and Dr. H. Boothe PharmD

diabetes_logo_slogan.jpgDiabetes mellitus is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education, to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. The disease is characterized by excess glucose in the blood that leads to excessive urination and results from inadequate production and or utilization of insulin.

• The different types of diabetes include Type 1, Type 2, Gestational (GDM), and Pre-diabetes.

• Diabetes not only complicates every other disease condition, it can precipitate other diseases.

• 171 million world-wide suffer from diabetes. One in 13 people in the USA have diabetes.

• In the year 2005 a total of 20.8 million have diabetes, of these 6.2 million are undiagnosed. 80% - 90% of the diagnosed are obese when diagnosed.

• It reduces life expectancy by 5 to 10 years.

• Diabetes is associated with obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and an increase in the elderly population.

• The Hispanic, African American and Aboriginal population (with high numbers of poor people with poor diets and inadequate medical attention) are at increased risk to develop diabetes than the rest of the population.

• It is the number 6 leading cause of death in the USA.

• Individuals with diabetes have a 2-4 times the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

• It is the leading cause of kidney failure, blindness, and non-traumatic amputation.

• Prediabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and a compensatory increase in blood glucose (hyperinsulinemia).

Approximately 1.2 million are diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.These numbers will double by the year 2030.

• Type 1 diabetes (results from beta-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency, it is of autoimmune origin that occurs in the adolescence period of life, usually before the age of 30. Type 1 diabetes presents with sudden onset weight loss, fatigue, irritability and was previously called insulin dependent diabetes.

• Type 2 diabetes (results from a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance, and is caused by inadequate insulin production by the beta cells in the pancreas, defective insulin, or resistance to insulin function at the insulin cell receptors. When insulin binds to its receptor on cell membrane, it allows glucose to enter the cell (i.e. muscle, liver, and fat cells); this is like the key that opens the lock to let glucose into the cell. When glucose is unable to leave the circulation, the blood glucose level rises above optimum level resulting in organ damage.

• Insulin, glucagons, adiponectin, amylin are hormones involved in glucose regulation. Glucagon accelerates the conversion of glycogen in the liver (and promotes the formation of glucose from lactic acid and certain amino acids).

• Insulin stimulates the release of glucose from the liver into the blood. And counteracts the action of glucagons by transporting glucose into cells. Insulin promotes the formation of fatty acids, increases the storage of glycogen, protein synthesis and DNA replication. Amylin is a hormone that acts like insulin.

• Human growth hormone, neurotransmitters, and regulatory peptides also play a role in glucose metabolism.

• In obese individuals, there is abnormal insulin activity (insulin resistance) at the muscles insulin receptors (sites on the muscle cells where insulin acts to pull glucose out of the blood into the cells).

• Cells use glucose as energy and when you have reduced production of insulin or the insulin is not working right glucose increases in the blood. If the cells don’t receive adequate supply of energy this sends message to the brain that results in increased hunger, at the same time, the blood becomes hyperosmolar( too thick) and absorbs water from tissue, this results in dehydration and increased thirst.

• Excess blood glucose destroys the kidney's filtering capability which results in excessive glucose and protein in the urine causing increased urination.

• In type1 diabetes there is a total destruction of the insulin producing cells by antibodies (an autoimmune dysfunction).

• Viral infection of the pancreas is implicated in this destructive mechanism.

• Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires insulin. Without insulin the body has to get its energy from fats. This results in Diabetic keto Acidosis (DKA) which leads to metabolic abnormalities. Treatment is Intravenous insulin and glucose. Type 1 diabetes is a result of the complete absence of insulin production in the pancreas, of viral etiology, genetic factors, presence of ketones in the blood (ketoacidosis), sudden onset and usually presents before age 30. These individuals with Type 1 diabetes usually have lean body composition. The diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes is made by detecting of antibodies and C-peptides in the blood.

These individuals usually do not have a family history of diabetes.
• Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) frequently presents with poor wound healing, blurry vision, numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, recurring skin and gum infections, vaginal yeast infection, and urinary tract infection. Factors that predispose people to developing T2MD include obesity (waist to hip ratio) fetal malnutrition, gestational diabetes, children born prematurely, a positive family history of T2DM, cigarette smoking, hypothyroidism, trans fat, saturated fats, endothelial dysfunction, high levels of testosterones in women, decrease levels of sex hormones binding protein in men, HIV/AIDS.





Fibroids

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By: Dr. Steve Lawson

FibroidUterusRGB.jpg

Uterine fibroid (leiomyomas) are benign tumors of the uterus. These tumors result from abnormal growth of muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue in the endometrium, myometrium, and the ectometrium of the uterus. By the age of 50 years old the overall incidence of fibroids are 70-80% for women. Black women are four times more likely to develop fibroids than Caucasian women. They also have larger fibroids and develop fibroids at a younger age Fibroids can vary in size from being undetectable by human eyes to the size of a full term pregnancy.

The etiologies of fibroids are linked to hormonal imbalance, obesity,
xeno-estrrogen, heavy metal toxicity, infectious microorganisms, stress and high blood sugar level. Fibroids can cause complications such as menstrual problems, pelvic and lower back pain, constipation, urinary problems, hemorrhoids, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and miscarriages.

Signs and symptoms that presents with uterine fibroids include heavy
menstrual bleeding (menorrhagea), prolong menstrual bleeding
(metrorrhagea), bleeding between periods, period pain (dysmenorrhea),
urinary incontinence, urinary frequency, severe acute abdominal pain,
constipation, hemorrhoids, anemia, back pain and leg pain.

Fibroids can be categorized into three types which include submucosal, myometrial and subserosal. Submucosal fibroids are located in the lining of the uterine cavity. Myometrial fibroids are located in the muscular layers of the uterus. Subserosal fibroids are located on the outer surface of the uterus. Both the submucosal and the subserosal fibroids can form pedunculated (fibroids that hang from a stalk). Fibroids can be detected by using pelvic examination, ultrasound, hysterosonography, hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingography.

Women who have excessive amounts of estrogen and an insufficient amount of progesterone are more predisposed to developing uterine fibroids. Women with excessive body fat are in an estrogen dominant state because fat tissues act as an estrogen-producing organ similar to the ovaries and the adrenal gland.

Estrogen is a prolific hormone that stimulates DNA replication that in excess can stimulate the smooth muscle cells of the uterus to replicate excessively and cause the overgrowth of fibrous connective tissue resulting in fibroids. Insulin-like growth factor is an anabolic hormone that is implicated in the abnormal growth of the uterine muscles that form fibroids. Xeno-estrogens are pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, and other toxic substances that act similar to estrogen causing DNA dysfunction resulting in abnormal replication that causes fibroids.

The excessive growth of these fibroids can cause submucosal irregularity resulting in dysmenorrhea and miscarriages. Fibroids in the subserosal layer of the uterus can cause obstruction of the colon resulting in constipation and the formation of hemorrhoids (dilated veins located in the region of the anus). Pedunculated fibroids in the submucosal and subserosal layers can twist on themselves cutting off their blood supply and causing severe abdominal pain that may require surgery. Excessive menstrual bleeding due to fibroids can result in anemia and its associated complications.

Treatment includes hysterectomy, myomectomy, Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE), gonadatropin releasing hormones (GnRH) antagonists, androgens (danazol), and focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), and essential oils.





By: Dr. Carlton Fraser

aids_logo.jpgIn spite of the efforts to clarify the origins of HIV/AIDS and to develop therapeutic and management orders, the disease is still shrouded in gray - and some who are genuinely concerned about the devastating effect of HIV/AIDS choose to seek deep into the mysteries.

Boyd E. Graves a US lawyer in his expose "State Origin: The Evidence of Laboratory Birth of AIDS" in which he unfurls numerous historical data - illustrates the intense procedures that culminated in HIV's origins and existence and the subsequent devastation of the innocents as a later development to accomplish the intended ethnic depopulation.

The 'mycoplasma,' discussed in our earlier mentioned "Laboratory of Hygiene History" published May 17, 2007 - was by 1898 the element of proof that epidemics could be arranged.

Four years later the capability to classify certain diseases by their ethnic effect existed. By 1918, the influenza virus killed millions of unsuspecting individuals- it was a flu virus modified with (bird) mycoplasma for which human primates had no acquired immunity.

In 1921 lead eugenics philosopher Bertrand Russell, publicly supported the necessity for organized plagues against the Black population. Secret testing of Afro-Americans were being conducted in 1931 and AIDS was tested in sheep.

In 1948 mention was made of devising a scheme to address the issue of overpopulation in certain racial groups.

Graves further reveals that in 1949 the Visna virus was isolated by Dr. Bjorn Sigurdson – significantly it shared some unique DNA with the HIV (virus), and in 1951 the government conducted its first virus attack on Afro-Americans. In 1970 President Nixon signed the "Population Czar". Nixon’s (August 10th) National Security Memo is unequivocal in its suggested direction(s) for depopulation – Progress Report #8 (PR#8) is issued in 1971 giving the update on the special (AIDS) virus program. It coordinates over 6000 pages of experiments, 20,000 scientific papers in fifteen(15), 400-page progress reports. The Flow Chart is the 'Research Logic Flow' of an ultra-secret federal program entitled 'Special Virus'. "On page 2 of the 1971 progress report (PR#8), the secret program narrates that it is seeking to make a candidate human virus by converging a leukemia and a lymphoma." The original name of HIV/AIDS is Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus. The virus was later attached as complement/contaminant to vaccines and sent as smallpox (vaccine) to Africa and experimental hepatitis B (vaccine) to Manhattan, USA (homosexual epidemic batch #751).

Graves further elaborates showing that PR#8 (Progress Report #8) continues at 273-286 to show that AIDS was given to monkeys...since 1962 the United States and Dr. Robert Gallo had been injecting/inoculating monkeys and re-releasing them back into the wild. The HIV/AIDS complex produced becomes the issue for discussion between the Soviets and Dr. Gallo.

The "Special Virus" is the designer product of a century long hunt for a contagious cancer that will selectively kill. The need for the creation and deployment of AIDS et al is fully outlined in the US population control policy decisions including National Security Study Memorandum 200 (NSSM-200) 1974 drafted and presented by Henry Kissinger at the mega conference on population control held in Bucharest, Romania.





HIV-positive and still sexy

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aids_logo.jpg"You can have your sexuality...you don't have to lose it because you have HIV"

People tend to think that contracting HIV can spell the end of their sex lives, but HIV-positive Africans of all ages are now being urged to reclaim their sexuality and live healthy, normal lives.

"I got this [HIV] through sex, so [I thought] my sexuality was gone and I felt I needed to stop dressing attractively and wait to die," Florence Anam, 28, an information officer at the Kenya Network of Women with AIDS, told IRIN/PlusNews.

Anam said when she first revealed she was HIV-positive, many men avoided her, believing she was out to infect them; she herself had no interest in sex for several months after she was diagnosed. However, she has since discovered she can continue having and enjoying sex, despite being HIV-positive.

"My take on this is that you can have your sexuality ... you don't have to lose it because you have HIV, you just have to be responsible," she said, adding that sex "has to be good or I'm not having it".

At a recent workshop by the Africa Regional Sexuality Resource Centre (ARSRC), at its Sexuality Institute in Kenya's coastal city of Mombasa, participants heard that there was a need to rethink sexuality in the context of disease, particularly chronic infections such as HIV.

"HIV as a condition is highly moralised; people face stigma because they are perceived by society to have been sexually immoral," said Richmond Tiemoko, director of ARSRC.

"Women are particularly affected by this type of stigma because they are expected to be the keepers of society's morality, so contracting HIV is seen as a great failure on their part." He said it was important that people living with HIV recognised and claimed their right to sexuality and sexual intercourse.





HIV Scare following Doctor's Misuse of needles

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aids_logo.jpgNew York state health officials notified 628 former patients of a Nassau County anesthesiologist that they need to seek testing for HIV, Hepatitis and other blood borne diseases, because between 2000 and 2005 the medical practitioner in question reused syringes when injecting patients with more than one drug, New York Times reports.

Investigations into the practice of anesthesiologist Harvey Finkelstein of Plainview, N.Y. began in 2005 after two of his patients contracted hepatitis C. According to the Times, Finkelstein would use a new syringe for each patient. However, Finkelstein told investigators that in 2000 he began using the same syringe to draw medicine from more than one vial when giving a patient more than one type of drug by injection, which caused the potential contamination of multidose vials.

The blood of a patient with one virus could, by backing up through the needle and entering the vials, be transmitted to another person when that vial of medicine was reused.

Investigators in 2005 notified 98 of Finkelstein's patients who had received epidural injections in the three weeks before, during and after his two patients were infected, that they should seek testing for blood borne diseases. Of the 84 who were tested, no other cases of infection were traced to Finkelstein. The state then expanded its investigation to examine records from 2000 to 2005. New York Health Commissioner Richard Daines in a statement released this week said that "the department identified all 628 patients who had received injections between Jan. 1, 2000, and Jan. 15, 2005, after a thorough review of medical records at all sites where this physician practiced" (Vitello/Kershaw, New York Times, 11/16).





Kids & HIV/AIDS; Don't Hate – EDUCATE

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jenna.jpgJenna Bush, daughter of the president of the United States, who has written a book chronicling the life of a young Latin American girl born HIV positive; also spoke briefly about the discrimination facing children living with HIV/AIDS in Jamaica. Inspired to write the book, entitled "Anna's Story; A Journey of Hope," following a UNICEF internship in Latin America and the Caribbean, it was the Jamaican response to HIV that seemed harshest, in all of the young Bush’s analogies.

Bush, 25, spoke of HIV positive children in Jamaica who told her they would never disclose their HIV status to anyone in their neighbourhood. The children's reason was a very real fear that someone in their village would stone them to death, she said. This speaks to the single most crippling aspect of HIV/AIDS; that is Stigma and Discrimination.

Talking about children with HIV/AIDS Jenna's book documents the life stories of the kids she encountered during her study/work experience. At a book signing session recently Jenna encouraged people to become mentors, teachers, tutors and volunteers for affected children in need of help and to educate themselves about the crucial issues facing children like, HIV/AIDS, sexual abuse and other like issues, the Tampa Tribune reported.





By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor-lawson.jpgonorrhea ( Neisseria Gonorrhea) is the second most common bacterial infectious disease in the United States. Gonorrhea and Chlamydia usually walk hand in hand. Approximately 650,000 reported cases occur annually. However, it is estimated that if under-diagnosed and unreported cases were accounted for, the actual infection rate would be twice this number.

The highest occurrences of Gonorrhea infections are among females between ages 15 to 19 and highest rates among males are between ages 20 to 24. It is more common among younger females because the vaginal epithelium is thinner.

This infection can be contracted through, vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Gonorrhea can infect the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes of women and the urethra, mouth, throat, and rectum of both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common complication of gonorrhea in women and epididymitis (infection of the spermatic duct) in men can lead to sterility. Arthritic joint pain, meningitis (infection of the tissue that covers the brain) and heart disease (endocarditis) are rare complications of gonorrhea infection.
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Stages, testing and current global infection rates
Grab a dictionary and read slowly, this clearly explains the deadly Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV

By: Dr. Carlton Fraser

Stop-AIDS-Hand.jpgThe CDC (Centers for Disease Control) in the United States, uses classification that divides the progress of HIV infection in adults into three clinical stages or categories.

Category A........At this stage the infection may be asymptomatic or cause persistent swollen lymph nodes. These are often those located on the underarm.

Category B.........This stage is characterized by persistent infections by the yeast Candida albicans oar thrush, which can appear in the mouth, throat or vagina. Often conditions may include shingles, persistent diarrhea, fever and certain cancerous and precancerous conditions of the cervix.

Category C ............ This stage is clinical AIDS. Important AIDS indicator conditions are Candida albicans or thrush, infections of the oesophagus, bronchi, and lungs; cytomegalovirus eye infections; tuberculosis, pnemocystis carinii, taxoplasmosis of the brain and Kaposi sarcoma.

The CDC also classifies the progress of HIV infections based on T-Cell populations or amounts, which provide guidelines for the administration of certain medications. The normal T-Cell count of a healthy individual is 800-1000 CD4 T-Cells. A count below 200 CD4 T-Cells is considered diagnostic for AIDS and medication is recommended at this stage. HIV can take almost 10 years to culminate into AIDS.





HIV/ AIDS FACTS...and yes...you need to know

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Grab a dictionary and read slowly, this clearly explains the deadly Human Immunodeficiency Virus

By: Dr. Carlton Fraser

aids_front_big.jpgThe Virus: Its History and Definition
The history of viruses probably began about 1886 when the Dutch chemist Adolf Mayer revealed that it was possible to transfer the tobacco mosaic disease from an affected plant to a healthy plant. In the past (1882) he had described the phenomenon as "a soluble, possible enzyme-like contagium" but by 1886 he had altered his opinion and reported that it is "bacterial, but that the infectious forms have not yet been isolated, nor are their forms of life known..."

Subsequently (1892) the Russian bacteriologist Dmitri Ivanovsky failed in his attempts to isolate the infectious agent by use of filtering and it was left to Dutch botanist Martinus Beijerink to voice the observation that the behavior, of the seemingly elusive causative agent, was different from that of bacteria. He fittingly coined the definition 'contagium vivum fluidum' or 'virus(es)' - the Latin for poison.

In and about 1935 two interesting events occurred that contributed immensely to our clinical understanding of virology. One was the American chemist Wendel M. Stanley isolating the tobacco mosaic virus and the other was the invention of an electron microscope which made viruses visible for the first time.
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By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor-lawson.jpgChlamydia is the most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States causing approximately 4 million infections annually. Today, teenage girls have the highest rates of Chlamydia infection worldwide. Studies conducted show that 1 in 9 women are infected with Chlamydia with higher prevalence between the ages 16-24. Approximately 90 million people are infected worldwide. Fifty percent of the men and seventy five percent of women infected with Chlamydia are asymptomatic (present without symptoms).

Transmitted during oral, vaginal and anal sex, through the blood during pregnancy as well as during vaginal delivery of a newborn, Chlamydia is a curable sexually transmitted infection (STI). Chlamydia trachomatis can be transmitted via aerosolize vapors (similar to tuberculosis). This type of infection does not cause obvious clinical infection but contributes to other severe medical complications such as intractable pain syndrome, heart disease, circulatory disturbances, diabetes, reactive arthritis and cancer.
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Herpes Simplex Virus

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By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor-lawson.jpgHerpes Simplex Viruses (HSVs) are ubiquitous organisms whose antibodies can be detected in one fifth of the US population. Worldwide prevalence of HSV has increased significantly in recent decades. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are two types of this virus.

Transmission
HSV-1 infections are transmitted primarily by contact with infected saliva and airborne droplets and usually affect the surface area of the lip, nose, the oral mucosa and tonsils. Congenital (intrauterine acquired) infection with HSV-1 is rare. HSV-1 invades the trigeminal nerves (the cranial nerve the controls the most of the facial and oral region) where they lie dormant until they are reactivated by a stressor (i.e. temperature).





HIV means Help I'm Vulnerable

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Testimonial by: JD

jd_bath-hiv-photo-patient-beyonce-jay-z.jpgI want to express my thoughts on HIV/AIDS and my experiences to all who will listen since HIV to me means Help I'm Vulnerable. This is a statement without boundaries, similar to the virus that can cause this crippling disease - AIDS. HIV does not alert anyone to the fact that it is checking in. Once in your blood stream, it tends to lay quietly at first for a very long time, only coming alive when the opportunity to slip into another red wet human vein arrives. I heard about this pandemic for years, but did not listen…after all, in my mind, this information did not apply to me.

I had no idea...until the day my husband died. When I met him he looked regular - well not exactly regular, he was extraordinarily fine. Masculine - muscular - six pack - smooth and gorgeous complexion - flawless skin throughout - and to top it off he was agile and really intelligent.





Breast Cancer - over 40,000 deaths occur annually

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By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor.jpgOne in eight women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that over 200,000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed annually. It makes breast cancer the most common cancer in women. It is estimated that over 40,000 deaths from breast cancer occur annually in the Unites States. This makes breast cancer the second most common cause of death in women ages 20-59.

The precise etiology is unknown. Risk factors include genetics, endocrine, and environmental/lifestyle. Family history may be the most significant factor for the development of breast cancer. Women whose mothers develop breast cancer less than sixty years old has twice the relative risk (risk of developing breast cancer in comparison to the general population). If a woman has two first degree relatives (mother/sister) with breast cancer, the relative risk increases four times. Women with atypical hyperplasia (benign breast disease) have a relative risk of three times. Women with lobular carcinoma In Situ (CIS) have a relative risk of seven times.





By: Dr. S Lawson

dave.jpgThe Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). HPV is at epidemic proportions in the united States. There is an 80% life time risk of acquiring this infection. Twenty million people in the United States alone are infected with HPV but are unaware of it. Cervical cancer is the 2nd most common cause of cancer world wide. HPV affects primarily the cervix, but the penis, anus, and the mouth can be infected.

Predisposing risk factors include smoking, oral contraceptive pills, pregnancy (low immunity), inadequate nutrition, early age of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, weakened immune system (HIV positive, chemotherapy) and other STDs i.e. Chlamydia. Transmission requires skin to skin contact. Some strains of HPV predispose women to develop cervical cancer and some strains have predisposing factors for warts. HPV-DNA test is available to detect the presence of HPV infection in women. The Pap (Papanicolaou) test is a screening test that will identify precancerous cells of the cervix so that further diagnostic and therapeutic work up can be implemented to prevent the development of cervical cancer. Gardasil is a vaccine, approved by the FDA, for young girls and young women age 9-26 that provides substantial protection against the most common strains of HPV.





By Dr. Carlton Fraser

InsideColonCancer_medical.jpgThe power to reduce our risks of developing colon cancer is in our hands. Here are some steps to lowering your risk of colorectal cancer:

* Regular screening (colorectal) test from age 50 onwards are recommended.
* Eat a healthy diet high in fiber and low in fat; eat most colorful fresh fruit and vegetables (which may contain chemopreventive agents; vitamins, minerals and fibers). Include, vegetables (prepared leafy green veggies); cruciferous vegetables e.g. okra (OKRA has insoluble fiber that helps keep the intestinal tract healthy decreasing risk of colon cancer) broccoli and Brussels sprouts are especially important; whole grains from breads, cereals (wheat bran supplements may help inhibit polyp formation), nuts and beans. Also a source of calcium with low fat milk. Fibers in natural foods (fruits and vegetables) are more effective for cancer prevention. Vegetable fat is not a risk factor. Research suggests that up to 35 percent of cancers are related to poor diet.





Inside Colon Cancer - Part 1 of Part two

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By Dr. Carlton Fraser

ColonCancer.jpgThe word Cancer has many origins; Middle English from Old English 'cancer', from the Old French 'cancre', both from Latin 'cancer' meaning crab or malignant disease. Cancer essentially defines abnormal cellular regeneration. It results from genetic change or destruction of the chromosomal material of the cell i.e. from mutation.

Every normal cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes which consist of the double spiral DNA molecule; that dictates the genetic characteristics in the chromosomes inherited. Within the chromosomes are 'millions' of genes that determine our growth, function and behaviour patterns.

Cells influenced by mutation disregard the clinically defined limits of growth or regeneration, exhibiting bizarre cellular behaviour. The hallmarks of (cellular) regeneration, disciplined growth/duplication and spatial limitation, are ignored. The original genetic code is no longer the determining factor for cellular development and cellular 'maturity' is now more influenced by other insidious factors. All human (cellular) elements are susceptible and the familiar tumor is a usual representation of pathological growth.
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Tips for Better Sex

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Can you remember the last time you couldn't wait to get home and shimmy between the sheets? Was it last week, last month? Last... year? We get it: Sometimes it's easier to give into your excuses -- I'm too tired, let's just do it this weekend, it doesn't even feel that great to begin with. But we don't need to tell you that sex is essential for a healthy marriage -- and also a healthy you. Research shows that a happy sex life can stamp out stress, reduce heart disease risk, and even improve immunity. But enough of the non-sexy talk. Try just one of these libido-lifting tricks today. You can thank us later.

1. Take a lunchtime stroll

Research shows that the more fit you are, the more sex you'll crave. In a study of women ages 45 to 55, sexual satisfaction correlated directly to fitness. "The less exercise they got, the lower their desire and sexual satisfaction," says study author Judith R. Gerber, PhD, a psychologist at the University of Vermont College of Medicine.

2. Book a rubdown

A pampering massage not only relieves stress... but "the skin-on-skin contact stimulates the sex hormone oxytocin," says Ian Kerner, PhD, author of "She Comes First."

"The more oxytocin released, the more desire a woman will feel."

3. Read something hot

Skip the evening news and flip through a sexy novel instead.

Erotic literature "can quickly jump-start arousal," says Carol Queen, PhD, a sexologist who works at Good Vibrations, a female-owned sex shop in San Francisco. She recommends the Herotica series, written by women, and The Diary of Anais Nin.

"Perfect for anyone who's not ready to get into bold four-letter words," says Queen.

4. Get really relaxed

Just a few meditation sessions can jack up your sex drive and speed arousal.

Researchers at Canada's University of British Columbia and Israel's Hadassah University Hospital measured reactions among 24 women watching an erotic film, then again after the subjects had attended three mindfulness meditation courses. Watching the same movie, the women were markedly more turned on than during the first viewing. "Mindfulness can directly change brain processing and allow women to experience arousal more acutely," says study co-author Lori Brotto, PhD.

 

5. Pop a multi

Too tired to feel sexy? It may be a diet deficiency.

Two overlooked nutrients may be to blame for sex-derailing exhaustion. "Low folate levels can make you feel tired, with no energy for sex," says Martha Morris, PhD, a Tufts University researcher; national surveys show that many women aren't getting enough of this B vitamin. And low iron can deplete brain neurotransmitters, which can lead to lethargy, says Swiss researcher Bernard Favrat, MD. The fix for both problems: a daily multivitamin with 100% of the DV for iron (18 mg) and folate (400 mcg).

6. Break a sweat beforehand

Exercise primes your body to get in the mood.

For some people, exercising too close to bedtime makes it hard for them to sleep. Take advantage of that found energy. "After 35 to 40 minutes of moderate exercise, everything in your body is going right," says Janet Hyde, PhD, a professor of psychology and women's studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Your blood is circulating, your nervous system is firing, so scheduling sex right after you exercise makes for good sex."

 

7. Smell your way sexy

These surprising scents will move you from the kitchen to the bedroom.

Cucumber, licorice, and baby powder have been shown to turn women on, increasing vaginal blood flow by 13 percent. Pumpkin pie and lavender increase blood flow by 11 percent. Try this: To cap a romantic dinner, serve pumpkin pie and keep a cucumber-scented sachet next to your pillow.

8. Ask about those little blue pills

The same meds that put your partner in the mood may also give your sex drive a lift Pills like Viagra increase blood flow to the genital area -- something women need for arousal just as much as men do. Though the FDA hasn't approved the pill for women, doctors can prescribe it off-label. Ask your healthcare provider if these meds might help you too.

9. Check your medicine cabinet

Any antidepressants in there? They could be stealing your orgasm. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of drugs that includes Prozac and Zoloft, "are probably the number one cause of anorgasmia [inability to have an orgasm]," says Andrew Goldstein, MD, of the Sexual Wellness Center in Annapolis, MD. They short-circuit your pleasure center by decreasing levels of the brain chemical dopamine (one of the sexual triumvirate, along with estrogen and testosterone).

10. Patch it up

If your sex drive has cooled down -- because of hormone abnormalities or surgery -- a testosterone patch may help rekindle your fire.


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There has been an outbreak of Chicken Pox at the Constant Spring Police lock up in St. Andrew.

Officials of the Public Health Department ordered a quarantine of the lock up, after five prisoners were diagnosed with the virus on Wednesday.

The lock up has been placed under quarantine for the next two weeks.

The Police High Command has ordered that no new prisoners should be taken to the lock up and those currently there should remain until the quarantine is lifted.

The High Command has ordered that the prisoners with the virus be isolated and that protective gear be provided for police personnel who work in the cells.

Among the 80 prisoners being housed in the lock-up is Garnett Reid, Jamaica Labour Party caretaker.

Chicken Pox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with the varicella zoster virus.

It usually starts as a vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head, which becomes itchy with raw pock marks that normally heal without scarring for some persons.

 





Doctors discover the Achilles heel of HIV

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lab_testings_edit.jpgDoctors of the University of Texas Medical School in Houston claim to have found an "innovative way to kill the (HIV) virus."

Drs. Sudhir Paul and Miguel Escobar say that they are not talking about suppressing HIV, but destroying it permanently.

Dr. Paul said that they have "...discovered the weak spot of HIV," - a key protein in HIV's structure which does not mutate. He calls it the Achilles heel, which they will attack using a treatment called abzyme.

The theory that this treatment could be used to control the disease for people with HIV and prevent infection for those at risk has already passed lab and animal testing. However, extensive funding is required to launch the human trials as clinical testing is expensive.

Dr. Paul calls his theory "...the holy grail of HIV research..."





The Caribbean fighting AIDS

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unaids_logo_edit.jpgThe Caribbean Launch of the UNAIDS Global 2008 report revealed that last year an estimated 23,000 - 270,000 persons were living with HIV, while an estimated 20,000 - 25,000 were newly infected, while 14,000 have died of illnesses related to AIDS. However, the spread of the illness has stabilized, while the numbers have declined in a few urban areas. This is most evident in the Dominican Republic and Haiti where the epidemic is most rampant. An estimated 30,000 people with HIV have received antiretroviral treatment, which is a 50 percent increase since 2006.

Edwin Carrington, Secretary General of CARICOM, said that the Caribbean is the only region in the world which has built strong partnerships against the epidemic, in the form of Pan Caribbean Partnerships against HIV/AIDS (PANCAP).

AIDS still remains one of the leading sources of death among the 25 - 44 age group in the Caribbean, but with continued scaling of the antiretroviral treatment, the number of persons with HIV progressing to AIDS could be reduced.

UNAIDS said that the main cause of HIV transmission in the Caribbean remains unprotected heterosexual sex, but "unprotected sex between men is also a significant factor..."





News Brief

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aids_logo.jpgFlorida HIV/AIDS Advocacy Groups, Health Departments To Increase HIV Awareness Among Minorities Ahead of National HIV Testing Day.

HIV/AIDS advocacy groups and health departments in Florida are planning several events aimed at increasing awareness about HIV among minorities ahead of National HIV Testing Day, which is scheduled for Friday, the Naples Daily News reports.

According to the Daily News, Florida in 2006 reported the third-highest AIDS rate for blacks and fourth-highest rate for Hispanics nationwide, as well as the highest rate for whites. Amalia Zamot, regional minority HIV/AIDS coordinator for the Florida Department of Health, said that there is a "general disproportion" in HIV/AIDS rates among white and minority communities in the area. She added that the disparity is especially true for the area's black community, in which one in every 72 people is living with HIV/AIDS.





Can you tell by appearance if someone is HIV Positive?

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By: Janice Dayle

Common_artiste.jpgAre you sick of hearing about especially youth who end up HIV positive because "They had no clue?" Are you lyrically fit and ready for a challenge?

Then get out your writing tools and carve out a good 60 second rhyme to express the importance of getting tested for HIV. Hip-hop Grammy winning artist Common has collaborated with It's Your (Sex) Life, a public information partnership between the Kaiser Family Foundation and MTV, and the Common Ground Foundation, with support from Youth Speaks, to launch: "A Minute," a new lyrics contest to encourage young people to get tested for HIV.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HIV screening for all adults and adolescents (ages 13-64) in the United States. Through this new joint initiative, Common, MTV and Kaiser are encouraging young people to take a minute to inform themselves and others about HIV testing.

CDC estimates that in the United States 1 in 4 people do not know that they are HIV positive.





Uniting the world against AIDS

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aids_logo.jpgUNAIDS – The joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS & WHO - The World Health Organization - issued the following statement following a Swiss medical journal bulletin that negates the high possibility of HIV transmission under certain circumstances. YardFlex will follow up with more on the Swiss research and their controversial announcement.

Antiretroviral therapy and sexual transmission of HIV

Geneva, 1 February 2008 - Following the recent publication of an article on Antiretroviral Treatment (medicines taken by people living with HIV that can reduce the amount of the virus in the blood to the point that the virus becomes undetectable) and sexual transmission of HIV in the Swiss medical journal 'Bulletin des médecins suisses', UNAIDS and WHO reiterate the importance of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention including correct and consistent use of condoms.

The article, published by Switzerland's Federal AIDS Commission (La Commission fédérale pour les problèmes liés au Sida), states that seropositive (HIV Positive) individuals do not risk transmitting HIV to a seronegative (HIV Negative) partner under the following conditions:

The seropositive partner has to have had undetectable HIV in the blood for at least 6 months, there must be strict with adherence to his/her antiretroviral regimen, and he/she must be free of any other sexually transmitted infections.

In the article the Commission states that although available medical and biological evidence does not rule out the possibility of HIV transmission they feel that there is nonetheless enough information to support its statement.





DIABETES...the facts - Part I

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By: Dr. S. Lawson MD and Dr. H. Boothe PharmD

diabetes_logo_slogan.jpgDiabetes mellitus is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education, to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. The disease is characterized by excess glucose in the blood that leads to excessive urination and results from inadequate production and or utilization of insulin.

• The different types of diabetes include Type 1, Type 2, Gestational (GDM), and Pre-diabetes.

• Diabetes not only complicates every other disease condition, it can precipitate other diseases.

• 171 million world-wide suffer from diabetes. One in 13 people in the USA have diabetes.

• In the year 2005 a total of 20.8 million have diabetes, of these 6.2 million are undiagnosed. 80% - 90% of the diagnosed are obese when diagnosed.

• It reduces life expectancy by 5 to 10 years.

• Diabetes is associated with obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and an increase in the elderly population.

• The Hispanic, African American and Aboriginal population (with high numbers of poor people with poor diets and inadequate medical attention) are at increased risk to develop diabetes than the rest of the population.

• It is the number 6 leading cause of death in the USA.

• Individuals with diabetes have a 2-4 times the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

• It is the leading cause of kidney failure, blindness, and non-traumatic amputation.

• Prediabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and a compensatory increase in blood glucose (hyperinsulinemia).

Approximately 1.2 million are diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.These numbers will double by the year 2030.

• Type 1 diabetes (results from beta-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency, it is of autoimmune origin that occurs in the adolescence period of life, usually before the age of 30. Type 1 diabetes presents with sudden onset weight loss, fatigue, irritability and was previously called insulin dependent diabetes.

• Type 2 diabetes (results from a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance, and is caused by inadequate insulin production by the beta cells in the pancreas, defective insulin, or resistance to insulin function at the insulin cell receptors. When insulin binds to its receptor on cell membrane, it allows glucose to enter the cell (i.e. muscle, liver, and fat cells); this is like the key that opens the lock to let glucose into the cell. When glucose is unable to leave the circulation, the blood glucose level rises above optimum level resulting in organ damage.

• Insulin, glucagons, adiponectin, amylin are hormones involved in glucose regulation. Glucagon accelerates the conversion of glycogen in the liver (and promotes the formation of glucose from lactic acid and certain amino acids).

• Insulin stimulates the release of glucose from the liver into the blood. And counteracts the action of glucagons by transporting glucose into cells. Insulin promotes the formation of fatty acids, increases the storage of glycogen, protein synthesis and DNA replication. Amylin is a hormone that acts like insulin.

• Human growth hormone, neurotransmitters, and regulatory peptides also play a role in glucose metabolism.

• In obese individuals, there is abnormal insulin activity (insulin resistance) at the muscles insulin receptors (sites on the muscle cells where insulin acts to pull glucose out of the blood into the cells).

• Cells use glucose as energy and when you have reduced production of insulin or the insulin is not working right glucose increases in the blood. If the cells don’t receive adequate supply of energy this sends message to the brain that results in increased hunger, at the same time, the blood becomes hyperosmolar( too thick) and absorbs water from tissue, this results in dehydration and increased thirst.

• Excess blood glucose destroys the kidney's filtering capability which results in excessive glucose and protein in the urine causing increased urination.

• In type1 diabetes there is a total destruction of the insulin producing cells by antibodies (an autoimmune dysfunction).

• Viral infection of the pancreas is implicated in this destructive mechanism.

• Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires insulin. Without insulin the body has to get its energy from fats. This results in Diabetic keto Acidosis (DKA) which leads to metabolic abnormalities. Treatment is Intravenous insulin and glucose. Type 1 diabetes is a result of the complete absence of insulin production in the pancreas, of viral etiology, genetic factors, presence of ketones in the blood (ketoacidosis), sudden onset and usually presents before age 30. These individuals with Type 1 diabetes usually have lean body composition. The diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes is made by detecting of antibodies and C-peptides in the blood.

These individuals usually do not have a family history of diabetes.
• Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) frequently presents with poor wound healing, blurry vision, numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, recurring skin and gum infections, vaginal yeast infection, and urinary tract infection. Factors that predispose people to developing T2MD include obesity (waist to hip ratio) fetal malnutrition, gestational diabetes, children born prematurely, a positive family history of T2DM, cigarette smoking, hypothyroidism, trans fat, saturated fats, endothelial dysfunction, high levels of testosterones in women, decrease levels of sex hormones binding protein in men, HIV/AIDS.





Fibroids

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By: Dr. Steve Lawson

FibroidUterusRGB.jpg

Uterine fibroid (leiomyomas) are benign tumors of the uterus. These tumors result from abnormal growth of muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue in the endometrium, myometrium, and the ectometrium of the uterus. By the age of 50 years old the overall incidence of fibroids are 70-80% for women. Black women are four times more likely to develop fibroids than Caucasian women. They also have larger fibroids and develop fibroids at a younger age Fibroids can vary in size from being undetectable by human eyes to the size of a full term pregnancy.

The etiologies of fibroids are linked to hormonal imbalance, obesity,
xeno-estrrogen, heavy metal toxicity, infectious microorganisms, stress and high blood sugar level. Fibroids can cause complications such as menstrual problems, pelvic and lower back pain, constipation, urinary problems, hemorrhoids, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and miscarriages.

Signs and symptoms that presents with uterine fibroids include heavy
menstrual bleeding (menorrhagea), prolong menstrual bleeding
(metrorrhagea), bleeding between periods, period pain (dysmenorrhea),
urinary incontinence, urinary frequency, severe acute abdominal pain,
constipation, hemorrhoids, anemia, back pain and leg pain.

Fibroids can be categorized into three types which include submucosal, myometrial and subserosal. Submucosal fibroids are located in the lining of the uterine cavity. Myometrial fibroids are located in the muscular layers of the uterus. Subserosal fibroids are located on the outer surface of the uterus. Both the submucosal and the subserosal fibroids can form pedunculated (fibroids that hang from a stalk). Fibroids can be detected by using pelvic examination, ultrasound, hysterosonography, hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingography.

Women who have excessive amounts of estrogen and an insufficient amount of progesterone are more predisposed to developing uterine fibroids. Women with excessive body fat are in an estrogen dominant state because fat tissues act as an estrogen-producing organ similar to the ovaries and the adrenal gland.

Estrogen is a prolific hormone that stimulates DNA replication that in excess can stimulate the smooth muscle cells of the uterus to replicate excessively and cause the overgrowth of fibrous connective tissue resulting in fibroids. Insulin-like growth factor is an anabolic hormone that is implicated in the abnormal growth of the uterine muscles that form fibroids. Xeno-estrogens are pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, and other toxic substances that act similar to estrogen causing DNA dysfunction resulting in abnormal replication that causes fibroids.

The excessive growth of these fibroids can cause submucosal irregularity resulting in dysmenorrhea and miscarriages. Fibroids in the subserosal layer of the uterus can cause obstruction of the colon resulting in constipation and the formation of hemorrhoids (dilated veins located in the region of the anus). Pedunculated fibroids in the submucosal and subserosal layers can twist on themselves cutting off their blood supply and causing severe abdominal pain that may require surgery. Excessive menstrual bleeding due to fibroids can result in anemia and its associated complications.

Treatment includes hysterectomy, myomectomy, Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE), gonadatropin releasing hormones (GnRH) antagonists, androgens (danazol), and focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), and essential oils.





By: Dr. Carlton Fraser

aids_logo.jpgIn spite of the efforts to clarify the origins of HIV/AIDS and to develop therapeutic and management orders, the disease is still shrouded in gray - and some who are genuinely concerned about the devastating effect of HIV/AIDS choose to seek deep into the mysteries.

Boyd E. Graves a US lawyer in his expose "State Origin: The Evidence of Laboratory Birth of AIDS" in which he unfurls numerous historical data - illustrates the intense procedures that culminated in HIV's origins and existence and the subsequent devastation of the innocents as a later development to accomplish the intended ethnic depopulation.

The 'mycoplasma,' discussed in our earlier mentioned "Laboratory of Hygiene History" published May 17, 2007 - was by 1898 the element of proof that epidemics could be arranged.

Four years later the capability to classify certain diseases by their ethnic effect existed. By 1918, the influenza virus killed millions of unsuspecting individuals- it was a flu virus modified with (bird) mycoplasma for which human primates had no acquired immunity.

In 1921 lead eugenics philosopher Bertrand Russell, publicly supported the necessity for organized plagues against the Black population. Secret testing of Afro-Americans were being conducted in 1931 and AIDS was tested in sheep.

In 1948 mention was made of devising a scheme to address the issue of overpopulation in certain racial groups.

Graves further reveals that in 1949 the Visna virus was isolated by Dr. Bjorn Sigurdson – significantly it shared some unique DNA with the HIV (virus), and in 1951 the government conducted its first virus attack on Afro-Americans. In 1970 President Nixon signed the "Population Czar". Nixon’s (August 10th) National Security Memo is unequivocal in its suggested direction(s) for depopulation – Progress Report #8 (PR#8) is issued in 1971 giving the update on the special (AIDS) virus program. It coordinates over 6000 pages of experiments, 20,000 scientific papers in fifteen(15), 400-page progress reports. The Flow Chart is the 'Research Logic Flow' of an ultra-secret federal program entitled 'Special Virus'. "On page 2 of the 1971 progress report (PR#8), the secret program narrates that it is seeking to make a candidate human virus by converging a leukemia and a lymphoma." The original name of HIV/AIDS is Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus. The virus was later attached as complement/contaminant to vaccines and sent as smallpox (vaccine) to Africa and experimental hepatitis B (vaccine) to Manhattan, USA (homosexual epidemic batch #751).

Graves further elaborates showing that PR#8 (Progress Report #8) continues at 273-286 to show that AIDS was given to monkeys...since 1962 the United States and Dr. Robert Gallo had been injecting/inoculating monkeys and re-releasing them back into the wild. The HIV/AIDS complex produced becomes the issue for discussion between the Soviets and Dr. Gallo.

The "Special Virus" is the designer product of a century long hunt for a contagious cancer that will selectively kill. The need for the creation and deployment of AIDS et al is fully outlined in the US population control policy decisions including National Security Study Memorandum 200 (NSSM-200) 1974 drafted and presented by Henry Kissinger at the mega conference on population control held in Bucharest, Romania.





HIV-positive and still sexy

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aids_logo.jpg"You can have your sexuality...you don't have to lose it because you have HIV"

People tend to think that contracting HIV can spell the end of their sex lives, but HIV-positive Africans of all ages are now being urged to reclaim their sexuality and live healthy, normal lives.

"I got this [HIV] through sex, so [I thought] my sexuality was gone and I felt I needed to stop dressing attractively and wait to die," Florence Anam, 28, an information officer at the Kenya Network of Women with AIDS, told IRIN/PlusNews.

Anam said when she first revealed she was HIV-positive, many men avoided her, believing she was out to infect them; she herself had no interest in sex for several months after she was diagnosed. However, she has since discovered she can continue having and enjoying sex, despite being HIV-positive.

"My take on this is that you can have your sexuality ... you don't have to lose it because you have HIV, you just have to be responsible," she said, adding that sex "has to be good or I'm not having it".

At a recent workshop by the Africa Regional Sexuality Resource Centre (ARSRC), at its Sexuality Institute in Kenya's coastal city of Mombasa, participants heard that there was a need to rethink sexuality in the context of disease, particularly chronic infections such as HIV.

"HIV as a condition is highly moralised; people face stigma because they are perceived by society to have been sexually immoral," said Richmond Tiemoko, director of ARSRC.

"Women are particularly affected by this type of stigma because they are expected to be the keepers of society's morality, so contracting HIV is seen as a great failure on their part." He said it was important that people living with HIV recognised and claimed their right to sexuality and sexual intercourse.





HIV Scare following Doctor's Misuse of needles

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aids_logo.jpgNew York state health officials notified 628 former patients of a Nassau County anesthesiologist that they need to seek testing for HIV, Hepatitis and other blood borne diseases, because between 2000 and 2005 the medical practitioner in question reused syringes when injecting patients with more than one drug, New York Times reports.

Investigations into the practice of anesthesiologist Harvey Finkelstein of Plainview, N.Y. began in 2005 after two of his patients contracted hepatitis C. According to the Times, Finkelstein would use a new syringe for each patient. However, Finkelstein told investigators that in 2000 he began using the same syringe to draw medicine from more than one vial when giving a patient more than one type of drug by injection, which caused the potential contamination of multidose vials.

The blood of a patient with one virus could, by backing up through the needle and entering the vials, be transmitted to another person when that vial of medicine was reused.

Investigators in 2005 notified 98 of Finkelstein's patients who had received epidural injections in the three weeks before, during and after his two patients were infected, that they should seek testing for blood borne diseases. Of the 84 who were tested, no other cases of infection were traced to Finkelstein. The state then expanded its investigation to examine records from 2000 to 2005. New York Health Commissioner Richard Daines in a statement released this week said that "the department identified all 628 patients who had received injections between Jan. 1, 2000, and Jan. 15, 2005, after a thorough review of medical records at all sites where this physician practiced" (Vitello/Kershaw, New York Times, 11/16).





Kids & HIV/AIDS; Don't Hate – EDUCATE

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jenna.jpgJenna Bush, daughter of the president of the United States, who has written a book chronicling the life of a young Latin American girl born HIV positive; also spoke briefly about the discrimination facing children living with HIV/AIDS in Jamaica. Inspired to write the book, entitled "Anna's Story; A Journey of Hope," following a UNICEF internship in Latin America and the Caribbean, it was the Jamaican response to HIV that seemed harshest, in all of the young Bush’s analogies.

Bush, 25, spoke of HIV positive children in Jamaica who told her they would never disclose their HIV status to anyone in their neighbourhood. The children's reason was a very real fear that someone in their village would stone them to death, she said. This speaks to the single most crippling aspect of HIV/AIDS; that is Stigma and Discrimination.

Talking about children with HIV/AIDS Jenna's book documents the life stories of the kids she encountered during her study/work experience. At a book signing session recently Jenna encouraged people to become mentors, teachers, tutors and volunteers for affected children in need of help and to educate themselves about the crucial issues facing children like, HIV/AIDS, sexual abuse and other like issues, the Tampa Tribune reported.





By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor-lawson.jpgonorrhea ( Neisseria Gonorrhea) is the second most common bacterial infectious disease in the United States. Gonorrhea and Chlamydia usually walk hand in hand. Approximately 650,000 reported cases occur annually. However, it is estimated that if under-diagnosed and unreported cases were accounted for, the actual infection rate would be twice this number.

The highest occurrences of Gonorrhea infections are among females between ages 15 to 19 and highest rates among males are between ages 20 to 24. It is more common among younger females because the vaginal epithelium is thinner.

This infection can be contracted through, vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Gonorrhea can infect the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes of women and the urethra, mouth, throat, and rectum of both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common complication of gonorrhea in women and epididymitis (infection of the spermatic duct) in men can lead to sterility. Arthritic joint pain, meningitis (infection of the tissue that covers the brain) and heart disease (endocarditis) are rare complications of gonorrhea infection.
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Stages, testing and current global infection rates
Grab a dictionary and read slowly, this clearly explains the deadly Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV

By: Dr. Carlton Fraser

Stop-AIDS-Hand.jpgThe CDC (Centers for Disease Control) in the United States, uses classification that divides the progress of HIV infection in adults into three clinical stages or categories.

Category A........At this stage the infection may be asymptomatic or cause persistent swollen lymph nodes. These are often those located on the underarm.

Category B.........This stage is characterized by persistent infections by the yeast Candida albicans oar thrush, which can appear in the mouth, throat or vagina. Often conditions may include shingles, persistent diarrhea, fever and certain cancerous and precancerous conditions of the cervix.

Category C ............ This stage is clinical AIDS. Important AIDS indicator conditions are Candida albicans or thrush, infections of the oesophagus, bronchi, and lungs; cytomegalovirus eye infections; tuberculosis, pnemocystis carinii, taxoplasmosis of the brain and Kaposi sarcoma.

The CDC also classifies the progress of HIV infections based on T-Cell populations or amounts, which provide guidelines for the administration of certain medications. The normal T-Cell count of a healthy individual is 800-1000 CD4 T-Cells. A count below 200 CD4 T-Cells is considered diagnostic for AIDS and medication is recommended at this stage. HIV can take almost 10 years to culminate into AIDS.





HIV/ AIDS FACTS...and yes...you need to know

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Grab a dictionary and read slowly, this clearly explains the deadly Human Immunodeficiency Virus

By: Dr. Carlton Fraser

aids_front_big.jpgThe Virus: Its History and Definition
The history of viruses probably began about 1886 when the Dutch chemist Adolf Mayer revealed that it was possible to transfer the tobacco mosaic disease from an affected plant to a healthy plant. In the past (1882) he had described the phenomenon as "a soluble, possible enzyme-like contagium" but by 1886 he had altered his opinion and reported that it is "bacterial, but that the infectious forms have not yet been isolated, nor are their forms of life known..."

Subsequently (1892) the Russian bacteriologist Dmitri Ivanovsky failed in his attempts to isolate the infectious agent by use of filtering and it was left to Dutch botanist Martinus Beijerink to voice the observation that the behavior, of the seemingly elusive causative agent, was different from that of bacteria. He fittingly coined the definition 'contagium vivum fluidum' or 'virus(es)' - the Latin for poison.

In and about 1935 two interesting events occurred that contributed immensely to our clinical understanding of virology. One was the American chemist Wendel M. Stanley isolating the tobacco mosaic virus and the other was the invention of an electron microscope which made viruses visible for the first time.
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By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor-lawson.jpgChlamydia is the most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States causing approximately 4 million infections annually. Today, teenage girls have the highest rates of Chlamydia infection worldwide. Studies conducted show that 1 in 9 women are infected with Chlamydia with higher prevalence between the ages 16-24. Approximately 90 million people are infected worldwide. Fifty percent of the men and seventy five percent of women infected with Chlamydia are asymptomatic (present without symptoms).

Transmitted during oral, vaginal and anal sex, through the blood during pregnancy as well as during vaginal delivery of a newborn, Chlamydia is a curable sexually transmitted infection (STI). Chlamydia trachomatis can be transmitted via aerosolize vapors (similar to tuberculosis). This type of infection does not cause obvious clinical infection but contributes to other severe medical complications such as intractable pain syndrome, heart disease, circulatory disturbances, diabetes, reactive arthritis and cancer.
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Herpes Simplex Virus

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By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor-lawson.jpgHerpes Simplex Viruses (HSVs) are ubiquitous organisms whose antibodies can be detected in one fifth of the US population. Worldwide prevalence of HSV has increased significantly in recent decades. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are two types of this virus.

Transmission
HSV-1 infections are transmitted primarily by contact with infected saliva and airborne droplets and usually affect the surface area of the lip, nose, the oral mucosa and tonsils. Congenital (intrauterine acquired) infection with HSV-1 is rare. HSV-1 invades the trigeminal nerves (the cranial nerve the controls the most of the facial and oral region) where they lie dormant until they are reactivated by a stressor (i.e. temperature).





HIV means Help I'm Vulnerable

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24 Comments

Testimonial by: JD

jd_bath-hiv-photo-patient-beyonce-jay-z.jpgI want to express my thoughts on HIV/AIDS and my experiences to all who will listen since HIV to me means Help I'm Vulnerable. This is a statement without boundaries, similar to the virus that can cause this crippling disease - AIDS. HIV does not alert anyone to the fact that it is checking in. Once in your blood stream, it tends to lay quietly at first for a very long time, only coming alive when the opportunity to slip into another red wet human vein arrives. I heard about this pandemic for years, but did not listen…after all, in my mind, this information did not apply to me.

I had no idea...until the day my husband died. When I met him he looked regular - well not exactly regular, he was extraordinarily fine. Masculine - muscular - six pack - smooth and gorgeous complexion - flawless skin throughout - and to top it off he was agile and really intelligent.





Breast Cancer - over 40,000 deaths occur annually

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By: Dr. S. Lawson

breast&doctor.jpgOne in eight women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that over 200,000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed annually. It makes breast cancer the most common cancer in women. It is estimated that over 40,000 deaths from breast cancer occur annually in the Unites States. This makes breast cancer the second most common cause of death in women ages 20-59.

The precise etiology is unknown. Risk factors include genetics, endocrine, and environmental/lifestyle. Family history may be the most significant factor for the development of breast cancer. Women whose mothers develop breast cancer less than sixty years old has twice the relative risk (risk of developing breast cancer in comparison to the general population). If a woman has two first degree relatives (mother/sister) with breast cancer, the relative risk increases four times. Women with atypical hyperplasia (benign breast disease) have a relative risk of three times. Women with lobular carcinoma In Situ (CIS) have a relative risk of seven times.





By: Dr. S Lawson

dave.jpgThe Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). HPV is at epidemic proportions in the united States. There is an 80% life time risk of acquiring this infection. Twenty million people in the United States alone are infected with HPV but are unaware of it. Cervical cancer is the 2nd most common cause of cancer world wide. HPV affects primarily the cervix, but the penis, anus, and the mouth can be infected.

Predisposing risk factors include smoking, oral contraceptive pills, pregnancy (low immunity), inadequate nutrition, early age of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, weakened immune system (HIV positive, chemotherapy) and other STDs i.e. Chlamydia. Transmission requires skin to skin contact. Some strains of HPV predispose women to develop cervical cancer and some strains have predisposing factors for warts. HPV-DNA test is available to detect the presence of HPV infection in women. The Pap (Papanicolaou) test is a screening test that will identify precancerous cells of the cervix so that further diagnostic and therapeutic work up can be implemented to prevent the development of cervical cancer. Gardasil is a vaccine, approved by the FDA, for young girls and young women age 9-26 that provides substantial protection against the most common strains of HPV.





By Dr. Carlton Fraser

InsideColonCancer_medical.jpgThe power to reduce our risks of developing colon cancer is in our hands. Here are some steps to lowering your risk of colorectal cancer:

* Regular screening (colorectal) test from age 50 onwards are recommended.
* Eat a healthy diet high in fiber and low in fat; eat most colorful fresh fruit and vegetables (which may contain chemopreventive agents; vitamins, minerals and fibers). Include, vegetables (prepared leafy green veggies); cruciferous vegetables e.g. okra (OKRA has insoluble fiber that helps keep the intestinal tract healthy decreasing risk of colon cancer) broccoli and Brussels sprouts are especially important; whole grains from breads, cereals (wheat bran supplements may help inhibit polyp formation), nuts and beans. Also a source of calcium with low fat milk. Fibers in natural foods (fruits and vegetables) are more effective for cancer prevention. Vegetable fat is not a risk factor. Research suggests that up to 35 percent of cancers are related to poor diet.





Inside Colon Cancer - Part 1 of Part two

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By Dr. Carlton Fraser

ColonCancer.jpgThe word Cancer has many origins; Middle English from Old English 'cancer', from the Old French 'cancre', both from Latin 'cancer' meaning crab or malignant disease. Cancer essentially defines abnormal cellular regeneration. It results from genetic change or destruction of the chromosomal material of the cell i.e. from mutation.

Every normal cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes which consist of the double spiral DNA molecule; that dictates the genetic characteristics in the chromosomes inherited. Within the chromosomes are 'millions' of genes that determine our growth, function and behaviour patterns.

Cells influenced by mutation disregard the clinically defined limits of growth or regeneration, exhibiting bizarre cellular behaviour. The hallmarks of (cellular) regeneration, disciplined growth/duplication and spatial limitation, are ignored. The original genetic code is no longer the determining factor for cellular development and cellular 'maturity' is now more influenced by other insidious factors. All human (cellular) elements are susceptible and the familiar tumor is a usual representation of pathological growth.
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